Convex lenses can be used in adjuvant with microwave sources to produce appropriate focus spots for breast cancer hyperthermia therapy. A preclinical system was assessed using a horn antenna together with a convex lens. The horn antenna was built to accommodate the lens size so as to minimize wave spillover. Here, a modified hyperthermia system was tested on a hemisphere phantom of scattered fibro glandular breast tissue with cancer stages I & II. The focus spots were at different locations and depths (up to 2.7 cm) under the skin layer. Transmission and reflection coefficients at the air-breast phantom interface were calculated to determine the best operating frequency (2.45 GHz) for efficient power absorption. Based on these computations, an external dielectric matched layer was added onto the skin of the breast phantom to decrease reflection that would occur between water and skin. This arrangement increased wave transmission inside the breast without increasing applicator input feed. The system could heat regions of tumor at various locations independently using only one applicator. The whole system was fabricated, and measurements were taken to validate the simulated and analytical results.
2. Choi, W. C., S. Lim, and Y. J. Yoon, "Design of noninvasive hyperthermia system using transmit-array lens antenna configuration," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 857-860, 2015.
3. Nguyen, P. T., A. Abbosh, and S. Crozier, "Three-dimensional microwave hyperthermia for breast cancer treatment in a realistic environment using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 64, No. 6, 1335-1344, 2017.
4. Tao, Y. and G. Wang, "Conformal hyperthermia of superficial tumor with cylindrical left-handed metamaterial lens applicator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 66, 1-10, 2016.
5. Tao, Y., E. Yang, and G. Wang, "Left-handed metamaterial lens applicator with built-in cooling feature for superficial tumor hyperthermia," Appl. Computational Electromagnetics Society J., Vol. 32, No. 11, 1029-1034, 2017.
6. Asili, M., et al., "Flexible microwave antenna applicator for chemo thermotherapy of the breast," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 14, 1778-1781, 2014.
7. Datta, N. R., et al., "Local hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy: Recent advances and promises for the future," Cancer Treat. Reviews, Vol. 41, No. 9, 742-753, 2015.
8. ACR, ARC BI-RADS Atlas, American College of Radiology, USA, 2013.
9. Giuliano, A. E., et al., "Breast cancer-major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual," A Cancer J. for Clinicians, Vol. 67, No. 4, 290-303, 2017.
10. Nguyen, P. T., A. Abbosh, and S. Crozier, "Three-dimensional microwave hyperthermia for breast cancer treatment in a realistic environment using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 64, No. 6, 1335-1344, 2016.
11. Stang, J., M. Haynes, P. Carson, and M. Moghaddam, "A preclinical system prototype for focused microwave thermal therapy of the breast," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 59, No. 9, 2431-2438, 2012.
12. He, X., W. Geyi, and Sh. Wang, "Optimal design of focused arrays for microwave-induced hyperthermia," IET Microw., Antennas Propag., Vol. 9, No. 14, 1605-1611, 2015.
13. Curto, S., et al., "In-silico hyperthermia performance of a near-field patch antenna at various positions on a human body model," IET Microw., Antennas Propag., Vol. 5, No. 12, 1408-1415, 2011.
14. Karnik, N. S., et al., IET Microw., Antennas Propag., Vol. 4, No. 2, 162-174, 2010.
15. Wang, G. and Y. Gong, "Metamaterial lens applicator for microwave hyperthermia of breast cancer," Int. J. Hyperthermia, Vol. 25, No. 6, 434-445, 2009.
16. Tao, Y. and G. Wang, "Conformal hyperthermia of superficial tumor with cylindrical left-handed metamaterial lens applicator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 66, 1-10, 2016.
17. Keshavarz, S., A. Abdipour, A. Mohammadi, and R. Keshavarz, "Design and implementation of low loss and compact microstrip triplexer using CSRR loaded coupled lines," International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), Vol. 111, 2019.
18. Keshavarz, S. and N. Nozhat, "Dual-band Wilkinson power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission lines," 13th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Thailand, 2016.
19. Harrington, R. F., SphericalWave Function, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1961.
20. Luhn, S. and M. Hentschel, "Analytical Fresnel laws for curved dielectric interfaces," Journal of Optics, Vol. 22, 2020.
21. Lazebnik, M., et al., "A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 20, 6093-6115, 2007.
22. Ashok Kumar, S. and T. Shanmuganantham, "Design and analysis of implantable CPW fed bowtie antenna for ISM band applications," AEU — Int. J. of Electron. and Commun., Vol. 68, No. 2, 158-165, 2014.
23. Ashok Kumar, S. and T. Shanmuganantham, "Design of implantable CPW fed monopole H-slot antenna for 2.45 GHz ISM band applications," AEU — Int. J. of Electron. and Commun., Vol. 68, No. 7, 661-666, 2014.
24. Ivashina, M. V., J. Simons, and J. G. Bij De Vaate, "Efficiency analysis of focal plane arrays in deep dishes," The Square Kilometre Array: An Engineering Perspective, 149-162, Dordrecht, Springer, 2005.
25. Dahri, M. H., et al., "Aspects of efficiency enhancement in reflectarrays with analytical investigation and accurate measurement," Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 11, 2020.
26. Gholipur, T. and M. Nakhkash, "Optimized matching liquid with wide-slot antenna for microwave breast imaging," AEU — Int. J. of Electron. and Commun., Vol. 85, 192-197, 2018.
27. Pe’rez Cesaretti, M. D., General effective medium model for the complex permittivity extraction with an open-ended coaxial probe in presence of a multilayer material under test, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bologna, Italy, 2012.
28. Hu, F., J. Song, and T. Kamgaing, "Modeling of multilayered media using effective medium theory," 19th Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems, USA, Oct. 2010.
29. Gabriel, N. H., et al., "AJCC cancer staging manual," American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), 589-628, Springer, New York, 2017.
30. Council of the European Union, "Council Recommendation: On the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)," Official Journal of the European Communities, 1999.
31. Meaney, P., T. Rydholm, and H. Brisby, "A transmission-based dielectric property probe for clinical applications," Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 10, 3484, 2018.
32. SPEAG, DAK Professional Handbook V2.4, Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Switzerland, 2016.
33. Lazebnik, M. and M. Okoniewski, "Highly accurate debye models for normal and malignant breast tissue dielectric properties at microwave frequencies," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 12, 822-824, 2007.
34. Dadzadi, A. and R. Faraji-Dana, "Breast cancer hemispheric shaped hyperthermia system designed with compact conformal planar antenna array," IEEE Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), Singapore, 2019.
35. Choi, W. C., S. Lim, and Y. J. Yoon, "Evaluation of transmit-array lens antenna for deep-seated hyperthermia tumor treatment," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 19, No. 5, 866-870, 2020.