Vol. 78

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2017-10-14

Square-Shaped Fractal Antenna Under Metamaterial Loaded Condition for Bandwidth Enhancement

By Pushkar Mishra, Shaym Sunder Pattnaik, and Balwinder Singh Dhaliwal
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 78, 183-192, 2017
doi:10.2528/PIERC17082701

Abstract

In this paper, a metamaterial loaded square-shaped fractal antenna with two iterations is presented and discussed. A metamaterial loading consistsof split ring resonators (SRRs) which enhances the bandwidth of the antenna keeping the dimensions and size of the antenna same. The square-shaped fractal antenna, which is in the form of three concentric rings, was simulated and fabricated, and the results were shown and discussed. The antenna resonates at three distinct frequency bands 4.3719 GHz, 7.7437 GHz and 10.6374 GHz with the gains of 1.1974 dB, 4.2745 dB and 4.7233 dB, respectively for resonant frequencies. The bandwidths for the antenna are 185 MHz, 198 MHz and 386 MHz for distinct resonant frequencies. The antenna is fabricated using an FR-4 substrate, and the measured resonant frequencies are 4.08 GHz, 7.545 GHz and 10.24 GHz. In metamaterial loading condition, the dimension of the antenna resonates at 4.0105 GHz, 6.8474 GHz and 8.0632 GHz with bandwidths of 636 MHz, 347 MHz and 1.33 GHz at resonant frequencies. The appreciable bandwidth is achieved in such a small antenna without changing dimensions and size of the antenna. The simulated, experimental results and comparison are also presented in this paper.The results show that the proposed method can be used to design high bandwidth and compact fractal microstrip patch antennas without increasing dimensions.

Citation


Pushkar Mishra, Shaym Sunder Pattnaik, and Balwinder Singh Dhaliwal, "Square-Shaped Fractal Antenna Under Metamaterial Loaded Condition for Bandwidth Enhancement," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 78, 183-192, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERC17082701
http://jpier.org/PIERC/pier.php?paper=17082701

References


    1. Joshi, J. G., S. S. Pattnaik, S. Devi, and M. R. Lohokare, "Electrically small patch antenna loaded with metamaterial," IETE Journal of Research, Vol. 56, No. 6, 373-379, 2010.
    doi:10.1080/03772063.2010.10876328

    2. Huang, H., "Flexible wireless antenna sensor: A review," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 10, 3865-3870, Oct. 2013.
    doi:10.1109/JSEN.2013.2242464

    3. Dhar, S., et al., "A wideband Minkowski fractal dielectric resonator antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 6, 2895-2903, Jun. 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2251596

    4. Gianvittorio, J. P. and Y. R. Samii, "Fractal antennas: A novel antenna miniaturization technique and applications," IEEE Antennas Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, 20-36, Feb. 2002.
    doi:10.1109/74.997888

    5. Falconer, K. J., Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications, Wiley, New York, 1990.

    6. Azari, A., "A new super wideband fractal microstrip antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 5, 1724-1727, May 2011.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2128294

    7. Joshi, J. G., S. S. Pattnaik, S. Devi, and M. R. Lohokare, "Bandwidth enhancement and size reduction of microstrip patch antenna by magneto-inductive waveguide loading," Wireless Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, 37-44, 2011.
    doi:10.4236/wet.2011.22006

    8. Joshi, J. G., S. S. Pattnaik, S. Devi, and M. R. Lohokare, "Frequency switching of electrically small patch antenna using metamaterial loading," Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, Vol. 40, 159-165, Jun. 2011.

    9. Veselago, G., "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 10, No. 4, 509-514, Jan.–Feb. 1968.
    doi:10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699

    10. Pendry, J. B., A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non linear phenomena," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2075-2084, 1999.
    doi:10.1109/22.798002

    11. Chen, P. Y. and A. Alu, "Dual-band miniaturized elliptical patch antenna with μ-negative metamaterials," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Letters, Vol. 9, 351-354, 2010.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2010.2048884

    12. Bilotti, F., A. Toscano, L. Vegni, K. Ydin, K. B. Alici, and E. Ozbay, "Equivalent-circuit models for the design of metamaterials based on artificial magnetic inclusions," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No. 12, 2865-2873, 2007.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2007.909611

    13. Joshi, J. G., S. S. Pattnaik, and S. Devi, "Geo-textile based metamaterial loaded wearable microstrip patch antenna," International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 25-33, Jan. 2013.

    14. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis & Design, 4th Ed., Wiley, 2005.

    15. Pahwa, K., P. Mishra, H. P. Sinha, S. S. Pattnaik, and J. G. Joshi, "Design and development of diamond shaped fractal antenna for wireless communications," International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 101-106, Mar. 2012.

    16. Prabhakar, D., P. Mallikarjun Rao, and M. Satayanarayana, "Characteristics of patch antenna with notch gap variations for WiFi applications," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 11, No. 8, 5741-5746, 2016.