A higher degree of miniaturization technique is presented based on frequency reduction method for a rectangular patch antenna by introducing slot on the radiating patch with unchanged antenna configuration. To realize the frequency reduction technique, a rectangular patch is design to operate at the fundamental frequency. Then a slot on the radiating patch is introduced and as an effect of slot, fundamental resonant frequency is shifted in left side in reflection coefficient plot. The percentage of reduction resonant frequency is 65.80% where 2.31 GHz is the fundamental frequency, and 790 MHz is the operating frequency of slot integrated patch geometry. In addition, we introduced another similar slot on the ground plane, and as a result, resonant frequency shifted from 790 MHz to 729 MHz caused by 68.44% reduction in resonant frequency with unchanged antenna dimension. Equivalent circuits have been analyzed for each antenna topology. To verify the simulated results, prototypes are fabricated and complied with measured results.
2. Buell, K., H. Mosallaei, and K. Sarabandi, "A substrate for small patch antennas providing tunable miniaturization factors," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 1, 135-146, Jan. 2006.
3. Mosallaei, H. and K. Sarabandi, "Design and modeling of patch antenna printed on magneto-dielectric embedded-circuit metasubstrate," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 1, 45-52, Jan. 2007.
4. Zhu, H. L., S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk, "Miniaturization of patch antenna using metasurface," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 57, No. 9, 2050-2056, Sep. 2015.
5. Chen, D., W. Yang, Q. Xue, and W. Che, "Miniaturized wideband planar antenna using inter-embedded metasurface structure," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 69, No. 5, 3021-3026, May 2021.
6. Zhu, S., X. Yang, J. Wang, and B. Wang, "Miniaturization of patch antenna based on hybrid topology optimization," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 30, No. 9, Sep. 2020.
7. Jarchi, S., J. Rashed-Mohassel, and R. Faraji-Dana, "Proximity effects of a layered periodic structure on miniaturization of patch antennas," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 23, No. 5, 549-558, Sep. 2013.
8. Kula, J. S., D. Psychoudakis, W. J. Liao, C. C. Chen, J. L. Volakis, and J. W. Halloran, "Patch-antenna miniaturization using recently available ceramic substrates," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 48, No. 6, 13-20, Dec. 2006.
9. Ouedraogo, R. O., E. J. Rothwell, A. R. Diaz, K. Fuchi, and A. Temme, "Miniaturization of patch antennas using a metamaterial-inspired technique," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 5, 2175-2182, 2012.
10. Singh, A. K., M. P. Abegaonkar, and S. K. Koul, "Highly miniaturized dual band patch antenna loaded with metamaterial unit cell," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 59, No. 8, 2027-2033, Aug. 2017.
11. Chair, R., K. M. Lee, and K. F. Lee, "Miniature multilayer shorted patch antenna," Electron. Lett., Vol. 36, 3-4, Jan. 2000.
12. Khan, M. U., M. S. Sharawi, and R. Mittra, "Microstrip patch antenna miniaturisation techniques: A review," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 9, 913-922, Institution of Engineering and Technology, Jun. 18, 2015.
13. Haque, S. K. M. and K. M. Parvez, "Slot antenna miniaturization using slit, strip, and loop loading techniques," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 5, 2215-2221, May 2017.
14. Ghosh, B., S. K. Moinul Haque, and D. Mitra, "Miniaturization of slot antennas using slit and strip loading," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 10, 3922-3927, Oct. 2011.
15. Ghosh, B., S. K. Moinul Haque, and N. R. Yenduri, "Miniaturization of slot antennas using wire loading," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 488-491, 2013.
16. Parvez, K. M. and S. K. Moinul Haque, "Bandwidth enhancement and cross-polarization suppression of slot antenna," Electromagnetics, Vol. 41, No. 2, 119-130, 2021.
17. Deshmukh, A. A. and K. P. Ray, "Compact broadband slotted rectangular microstrip antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 1410-1413, 2009.
18. Dasgupta, S., B. Gupta, and H. Saha, "Compact equilateral triangular patch antenna with slot loading," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 56, No. 2, 268-274, Feb. 2014.
19. Won, C., Y. Do Kim, and H. M. Lee, "A compact micro strip patch antenna with T-shaped slits for portable GPS handsets," ISAPE 2003 - 2003 6th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, Proceedings, 335-338, 2003.
20. Farahbakhsh, A. and D. Zarifi, "Miniaturization of patch antennas by curved edges," AEU - Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 117, 153125, Apr. 2020.
21., , Ansys HFSS ver 19.2, Ansys Corp., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2018.
22. Balanis, C., Antenna Theory, Wiely-Interscience, New York, 2005.
23., , NI AWR ver 13, National Instrument Corporation, EI Segundo, CA, USA, 2019.