Study of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for various non-navigational applications is gaining importance day by day. Very recently, India's Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) is a new entry in GNSS systems available worldwide such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Beidou. One of the important non-navigational applications is the study of soil moisture with GNSS. NavIC is very much different from widely used and globally available GPS system. Therefore, in this paper we have analyzed and developed an algorithm for soil moisture retrieval with NavIC Carrier to Noise (C/No) ratio. Information of soil moisture is very beneficial for various applications such as groundwater estimation, management of agricultural, drought monitoring and prediction, weather forecasting and flood forecasting. Amplitude of multipath Carrier to Noise (C/No) ratio from the NavIC receiver at L−band has been utilized to determine the soil moisture from the smooth bare soil surface. The analyses of sensitivity of soil moisture have been carried out by observing the NavIC multipath data and measurement of in situ soil moisture content. The algorithm development focuses on the retrieval of multipath amplitude from the interference pattern created at the receiver due to direct signal and reflected/multipath signal. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order polynomials have been analyzed to detrend the signal before fitting it with sinusoidal variation. It was observed that the multipath amplitude retrieved after detrending the C/No data with the 1st order polynomial provides better correlation with observed soil moisture than the 2nd and 3rd order polynomials. An empirical relationship between multipath amplitude and soil moisture has been developed. This developed empirical relationship is capable of providing soil moisture with known multipath amplitude. The retrieved soil moisture with developed algorithm is in good agreement with observed soil moisture with RMSE of 1.43%. Obtained results indicate the promising potential for the estimation of soil moisture with NavIC C/No ratio.
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