This work presents the modelling of a highly efficient all-metal slotted waveguide array antenna (SLWA) at sub-THz frequencies for the 5th generation communication applications or beyond. The slotted waveguide array antenna is modified for the accomplishment of high gain, wide bandwidth, and circularly polarized broadside radiation pattern. The proposed double `T'-shaped slot (DTS) which acts as an active element in the whole antenna radiation and other elements after DTS contribute high directivity and gain. The designed slotted waveguide array antenna with DTS is modified for the reconfiguration of linear polarization into circular polarization and achieves the axial ratio (AR) below 3 dB for the bandwidth of 22.323 GHz with a maximum gain of 14.4 dBi. The length and shape of the slot are altered in the SLWA in-order to set up the advanced rectangular stepdown slots (RSDS) and cross stepdown slots (CSDS) for the circularly polarized beam scanning application. The RSDS SLWA, and CSDS SLWA provide wide impedance bandwidths of 56.506 GHz and 61.236 GHz with 3 dB AR range of 12.417 GHz and 9.688 GHz, respectively. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are done in CST microwave suite and validated using HFSS software.
2. Generalov, A. A., J. A. Haimakainen, D. V. Lioubtchenko, and A. V. Raisanen, "Wide band mm- and sub-mm-wave dielectric rod waveguide antenna," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 568-574, 2014.
3. Tajima, T., H.-J. Song, H. Matsuzaki, and M. Yaita, "LTCC-integrated H-plane bends for THz antenna-in-package solution," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 27, No. 5, 440-442, 2017.
4. Tajima, T., H.-J. Song, and M. Yaita, "Compact THz LTCC receiver module for 300 GHz wireless communications ," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 26, No. 4, 291-293, 2016.
5. Tajima, T., H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, M. Yaita, and N. Kukutsu, "300-GHz step-profiled corrugated horn antennas integrated in LTCC," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 11, 5437-5444, 2014.
6. Patidar, D., P. K. Singhal, H. K. Gupta, and G. Sharma, "Microstrip planner five-element Yagi-Uda antenna for ISM band application," International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 395-400, 2012.
7. Cai, R.-N., M.-C. Yang, S. Lin, X.-Q. Zhang, X.-Y. Zhang, and X.-F. Liu, "Design and analysis of printed yagi-uda antenna and two-element array for WLAN applications," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 1-8, 2012.
8. Rodriguez-Ulibarri, P. and T. Bertuch, "Microstrip-fed complementary Yagi-Uda Antenna," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 10, No. 9, 926-931, 2016.
9. King, R.W. P. and S. S. Sandler, "The theory of broadside arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 269-275, May 1964.
10. Guglielmi, M. and D. R. Jackson, "Broadside radiation from periodic leaky-wave antennas," IEEE Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 41, No. I, 31-37, 1993.
11. Comite, D., S. K. Podilchak, P. Baccarelli, P. Burghignoli, A. Galli, A. P. Freundorfer, and Y. M. M. Antar, "Analysis and design of a compact leaky-wave antenna for wide-band broadside radiation,", Nature Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, No. 17741, 4-14, 2018.
12. Bayat-Makou, N., K.Wu, and A. A. Kishk, "Single-layer substrate-integrated broadside leaky long-slot array antennas with embedded reflectors for 5G systems," IEEE Transactions on Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 12, 7331-7339, Dec. 2019.
13. Hesariand, S. S. and J. Bornemann, "Wideband circularly polarized substrate integrated waveguide end-fire antenna system with high gain," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2262-2265, 2017.
14. Wang, A., L. Yang, Y. Zhang, Xi Li, X. Yi, and G. Wei, "A novel planar dual circularly polarized endfire antenna," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 64297-64302, 2019.
15. Abdelrahim, W. and Q. Feng, "Compact broad band dual-band circularly polarised antenna for universal UHF RFID handheld reader and GPS applications," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 13, No. 10, 1664-1670, 2019.
16. Lu, W. J., K. Wang, S.-S. Gu, L. Zhu, and H. Bo. Zhu, "Directivity enhancement of planar endfire circularly polarized antenna using V-shaped 1.5-wavelength dipoles," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 7, 1420-1423, 2019.
17. Liu, J., H. Lu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, Z. Dong, C. Deng, X. Lv, and Y. Liu, "Wideband circularly polarized waveguide-fed antipodal exponential tapered slot antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 9, 1912-1916, 2019.
18. Wang, M., L. Hu, J. Chen, S. Qi, and W. Wu, "Wideband circularly polarized square slot array fed by slotted waveguide for satellite communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 61, 111-118, 2016.
19. Li, G., H. Zhai, T. Li, L. Li, and C. Liang, "CPW-fed S-shaped slot antenna for broad band circular polarization," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 619-622, 2013.
20. Salari, M. and M. Movahhedi, "A new configuration for circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna," Proceedings of The Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 606-609, 2011.
21. Stilwell, R. K., R. E.Wallis, and M. L. Edwards, "A circularly polarized, electrically scanned slotted waveguide array suitable for high temperature environments," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Digest, 1030-1033, Held in Conjunction With: Usnc/Cnc/Ursi North American Radio Sci. Meeting, 2003.
22. Zhao, Y., K. Wei, Z. Zhang, and Z. Feng, "A waveguide antenna with bidirectional circular polarizations of the same sense," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 559-562, 2013.
23. Wu, X., F. Yang, F. Xu, and J. Zhou, "Circularly polarized waveguide antenna with dual pairs of radiation slots at Ka-band," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2947-2950, 2017.
24. Xu, J., M. Wang, H. Huang, and W. Wu, "Circularly polarized patch array fed by slotted waveguide," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 8-11, 2015.
25. Xia, F. Y., Y. J. Cheng, Y. F. Wu, and Y. Fan, "V-band wideband circularly polarized endfire multibeam antenna with wide beam coverage," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 8, 1616-1620, 2019.
26. Shang, Y., H. Yu, H. Fu, and W. M. Lim, "A 239-281 GHz CMOS receiver with on-chip circular-polarized substrate integrated waveguide antenna for sub-terahertz imaging," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 6, 686-695, 2014.
27. Ansari, M., H. Zhu, N. Shariati, and Y. J. Guo, "Compact planar beamforming array with endfire radiating elements for 5G applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 11, 6859-6869, 2019.
28. Elhefnawy, M. and A. A. Al-Hadi, "A novel design of slotted waveguide phased array antenna," Advanced Electromagnetics, Vol. 8, No. 3, 16-22, 2019.
29. Nisamol, T. A., K. K. Ansha, and P. Abdulla, "Design of sub-THz beam scanning antenna using Luneburg lens for 5G communications or beyond," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 99, 179-191, 2020.
30. Ghasemi, A. and J.-J. Laurin, "A continuous beam steering slotted waveguide antenna using rotating dielectric slabs," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 10, 6362-6370, 2019.
31. Lu, L., et al., "Design of low-sidelobe circularly polarized loop linear array fed by the slotted SIW," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 537-540, 2016.
32. Shang, X., M. Ke, Y. Wang, and M. J. Lancaster, "WR-3 band waveguides and filters fabricated using SU8 photoresist micromachining technology," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 629-637, 2012.
33. Russo, I., L. Boccia, G. Amendola, and H. Schumacher, "Compact hybrid coaxial architecture for 3 GHz–10 GHz UWB quasi-optical power combiners," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 77-92, 2012.