Design, simulation, implementation and measurement results of multiline and multilayer microstrip directional couplers are given with closed form relations. Step-by-step design procedure reflecting the design practice of directional couplers, which requires only information on coupling level, port impedances and operational frequency, is presented. The method based on the synthesis technique applied in the design of conventional two-line microstrip symmetrical directional couplers is adapted to design multilayer directional couplers with the aid of electromagnetic simulators using parametric analysis with curve fitting method. The proposed design method is compared with the measurement results and accuracy is verified. It has been also shown that the directivity of the couplers designed using the multilayer structure is improved significantly. A method such as the one presented in this paper can be used to design multilayer two-line and three-line directional couplers which can be integrated to the front end of an RFID systems to provide the required isolation between transmitter and receiver and prevent signal leakage due to use of conventional circulators.
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