Vol. 84

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2018-05-29

Design and Fabrication of Antennas Using 3D Printing

By Jason Bjorgaard, Michael Hoyack, Eric Huber, Milad Mirzaee, Yi-Hsiang Chang, and Sima Noghanian
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 84, 119-134, 2018
doi:10.2528/PIERC18011013

Abstract

Due to a recent growth in three-dimension (3D) printing technology, engineers can fabricate affordable and versatile antennas; however, lossy conductive materials, inadequate antenna terminations, and simplistic designs which do not adequately utilize the available volume continue to limit the capabilities of 3D printed antennas. In this work, the dielectric constants of three polylactic acid (PLA) materials, dielectric PLA, magnetic PLA and conductive PLA, were measured using the coaxial transmission line method, and the results were compared with measurements using the commercially available coaxial probe method. Based on published dielectric constants for solid non-printed PLA, a variety of antenna designs were simulated and fabricated. Each of these antenna designs addressed a certain shortcoming faced by 3D printed antennas. The antennas were designed with a target resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz, an impedance bandwidth of at least 500 MHz, and a gain greater than 1.5 dBi. The three antennas presented here are a fractal bow-tie antenna (FBTA), a spiral antenna, and a Yagi-Uda antenna.

Citation


Jason Bjorgaard, Michael Hoyack, Eric Huber, Milad Mirzaee, Yi-Hsiang Chang, and Sima Noghanian, "Design and Fabrication of Antennas Using 3D Printing," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 84, 119-134, 2018.
doi:10.2528/PIERC18011013
http://jpier.org/PIERC/pier.php?paper=18011013

References


    1. Nayeri, P., M. Liang, R. A. Sabory-Garcia, M. Tuo, F. Yang, M. Gehm, H. Xin, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "3D printed dielectric reflectarrays: Low-cost high-gain antennas at sub-millimeter waves," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 4, 2000-2008, Apr. 2014.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2303195

    2. Floch, J.-M., B. El Jaafari, and A. El Sayed Ahmed, "New compact broadband GSM/UMTS/LTE antenna realized by 3D printing," The 9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Lisbon, Portugal, Apr. 2015.

    3. Lopez, A. G., E. L. C. Ernesto, R. Chandra, and A. J. Johansson, "Optimization and fabrication by 3D printing of a volcano smoke antenna for UWB applications," 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1471-1473, Apr. 2013.

    4. Mirzaee, M., S. Noghanian, and Y. Chang, "Low-profile bowtie antenna with 3D printed substrate," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 59, 706-710, 2017.
    doi:10.1002/mop.30379

    5. Ahmadloo, M. and P. Mousavi, "Application of novel integrated dielectric and conductive ink 3D printing technique for fabrication of conical spiral antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 780-781, Jul. 2013.

    6. Mirzaee, M., S. Noghanian, L. Wiest, and Y. Chang, "Developing flexible 3D printed antenna using conductive ABS materials," IEEE International Symposium on Antenna and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting 2015, 1308-1309, Jul. 2015.

    7. Ahn, B. Y., E. B. Duoss, M. J. Motala, X. Guo, S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, J. Yoon, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, and J. A. Lewis, "Omnidirectional printing of flexible, stretchable, and spanning silver microelectrodes," Science, Vol. 323, No. 5921, 1590-1593, Mar. 2009.
    doi:10.1126/science.1168375

    8. Adams, J. J., S. C. Slimmer, J. A. Lewis, and J. T. Bernhard, "3D-printed spherical dipole antenna integrated on small RF node," Electron. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 9, 661-662, Apr. 2015.
    doi:10.1049/el.2015.0256

    9., "Antenna fabrication via direct print,", [online], available: http://www.sciperio.com/antenna/-antenna-fabrication.asp, Nov. 2017.
    doi:10.1049/el.2015.0256

    10. Bisognin, A., D. Titz, C. Luxey, G. Jacquemod, F. Ferrero, D. Lugara, A. Bisognin, R. Pilard, F. Gianesello, D. Gloria, J. R. Costa, C. Laporte, H. Ezzeddine, E. B. Lima, and C. A. Fernandes, "A 120 GHz 3D-printed plastic elliptical lens antenna with an IPD patch antenna source," IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wide Band (ICUWB), 171-174, Sep. 2014.

    11. Yi, H., S.-W. Qu, K. B. Ng, and C. H. Chan, "3-D printed discrete dielectric lens antenna with matching layer," International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP), 115-116, Dec. 2014.

    12. Bisognin, A., D. Titz, F. Ferrero, R. Pilard, C. A. Fernandes, J. R. Costa, C. Corre, P. Calascibetta, J.-M. Riviere, A. Poulain, C. Badard, F. Gianesello, C. Luxey, P. Busson, D. Gloria, and D. Belot, "3D printed plastic 60 GHz lens: Enabling innovative millimeter wave antenna solution and system ," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), 1-4, Jun. 2014.

    13. Garlotta, D., "A literature review of Poly (Lactic Acid)," Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Vol. 9, No. 2, 63-84, Apr. 2001.
    doi:10.1023/A:1020200822435

    14., "Keysight technologies basics of measuring the dielectric properties of materials,", [online], available at http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5989-2589EN.pdf, Nov. 2017.
    doi:10.1023/A:1020200822435

    15. Hoyack, M., J. Bjorgaard, E. Huber, M. Mirzaee, and S. Noghanian, "Connector design for 3D printed antennas," 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, June.-Jul. 2016.

    16. Neetu, S. B. and R. K. Bansal, "Design and analysis of fractal antennas based on Koch and Sierpinski fractal geometries," International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1-7, Jun. 2013.

    17. Amin, Y., Q. Chen, L. R. Zheng, and H. Tenhunen, "Design and fabrication of wideband Archimedean spiral antenna based ultra-low cost ``green" modules for RFID sensing and wireless applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 130, 241-256, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIER12070807

    18. Liu, Q., C.-L. Ruan, L. Peng, and W.-X. Wu, "A novel compact Archimedean spiral antenna with gap-loading," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 3, 169-177, 2008.
    doi:10.2528/PIERL08032002

    19. Pozar, D. M., "Field analysis of transmission lines," Microwave Engineering, 1st Edition, Ch. 3, sec. 2-9, 72-107, Addison-Wesley, 1990.

    20. Huber, E., M. Mirzaee, J. Bjorgaard, M. Hoyack, S. Noghanian, and I. Chang, "Dielectric property measurement of PLA," 2016 International Conference on Electro/Information Technology, Grand Forks, ND, USA, May 2016.

    21. Ansys, [online], , available at http://www.ansys.com/Products/Simulation+ Technology/-Electronics/Signal+ Integrity/ANSYS+ HFSS, Nov. 2017.

    22. CST Microwave Studio, [online], , available at https://www.cst.com/Products/CSTMWS, Nov. 2017.

    23. Nakatsuka, T., "Polyactic acid-coated cable," Fukikura Technical Review, No. 40, 2011.

    24. Bare Conductive Electric Paint, [online], , available at https://www.bareconductive.com/shop/electric-paint-10ml/, Nov. 2017.

    25. Caswell Copper Conductive Paint, [online], , available at http://www.caswellplating.com/copper-conductive-paint-4oz.html#, Nov. 2017.

    26. Galium by RotoMetal, , https://rotometals.com/gallium/, Nov. 2017.