This paper presents a general theoretical analysis of the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) efficiency that exists between electrically short, Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) electric and magnetic dipoles, with particular relevance to near-field applications. The figure of merit for the dipoles is derived in closed-form, and used to study the WPT efficiency as the criteria of interest. The analysis reveals novel results regarding the WPT efficiency for both sets of dipoles, and describes how electrically short perfectly conducting dipoles can achieve efficient WPT over distances that are considerably greater than their size.
2. Kiani, M., U.-M. Jow, and M. Ghovanloo, "Design and optimization of a 3-coil inductive link for efficient wireless power transmission," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1, Jul. 2011.
3. Choi, J., Y.-H. Ryu, D. Kim, N. Y. Kim, C. Yoon, Y.-k. Park, and S. Kwon, "Design of high efficiency wireless charging pad based on magnetic resonance coupling," 9th European Radar Conference (EuRAD), 590-593, 2012.
4. Wu, P., F. Bai, Q. Xue, X. Liu, and S. Y. R. Hui, "Use of frequency-selective surface for suppressing radio-frequency interference from wireless charging pads," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 61, No. 8, 3969-3977, 2014.
5. Eberle, W. and F. Musavi, "Overview of wireless power transfer technologies for electric vehicle battery charging," IET Power Electronics, Vol. 7, No. 1, 60-66, Jan. 2014.
6. Li, S. and C. Mi, "Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle applications," IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. Pp, No. 99, 1, 2014.
7. Park, C., S. Member, S. Lee, G.-H. Cho, S. Member, C. T. Rim, and A. O. C. Configuration, "Innovative 5-m-off-distance inductive power transfer systems with optimally shaped dipole coils," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 30, No. 2, 817-827, 2015.
8. Kurs, A., A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, and M. Soljacic, "Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances," Science, Vol. 317, No. 5834, 83-85, New York, N.Y., Jul. 2007.
9. Brown, W. C., "The history of wireless power transmission," Solar Energy, Vol. 56, No. 1, 3-21, 1996.
10. Huang, L., V. Pop, R. de Francisco, R. Vullers, G. Dolmans, H. de Groot, and K. Imamura, "Ultra low power wireless and energy harvesting technologies — An ideal combination," 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, 295-300, Nov. 2010.
11. Popovic, Z., E. A. Falkenstein, D. Costinett, and R. Zane, "Low-power far-field wireless powering for wireless sensors," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 6, 1397-1409, 2013.
12. Lee, J. and S. Nam, "Fundamental aspects of near-field coupling small antennas for wireless power transfer," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 11, 3442-3449, 2010.
13. Mur-miranda, O., G. Fanti, Y. Feng, K. Omanakuttan, R. Ongie, A. Setjoadi, and F. W. Olin, Wireless Power Transfer Using Weakly Coupled Magnetostatic Resonators, 4179-4186, 2010.
14. Warnick, K., B. Gottula, S. Shrestha, and J. Smith, "Optimizing power transfer efficiency and bandwidth for near field communication systems," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 2, 927-933, 2013.
15. Poon, A., S. O’Driscoll, and T. Meng, "Optimal frequency for wireless power transmission into dispersive tissue," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 5, 1739-1750, May 2010.
16. Moorey, C., W. Holderbaum, and B. Potter, "Investigation of high-efficiency wireless power transfer criteria of resonantly-coupled loops and dipoles through analysis of the figure of merit," Energies, Vol. 8, No. 10, 11 342-11 362, 2015.
17. Urzhumov, Y. and D. Smith, "Metamaterial-enhanced coupling between magnetic dipoles for efficient wireless power transfer," Physical Review B, Vol. 83, No. 20, 1-23, 2011.
18. Lipworth, G., J. Ensworth, K. Seetharam, D. Huang, J. S. Lee, P. Schmalenberg, T. Nomura, M. S. Reynolds, D. R. Smith, and Y. Urzhumov, "Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer," Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, 3642, 2014.
19. Zhong, W., C. K. Lee, and S. Y. Ron Hui, "General analysis on the use of tesla’s resonators in domino forms for wireless power transfer," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No. 1, 261-270, 2013.
20. Ahn, D. and S. Hong, "A study on magnetic field repeaters in wireless power transfer," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No. 1, 360-371, 2013.
21. Garnica, J., J. Casanova, and J. Lin, "High efficiency midrange wireless power transfer system," 2011 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission: Technologies, Systems, and Ap, Vol. 5, 73-76, 2011.
22. Orfanidis, S. J., Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas, Online, New Jersey, 2014.
23. Hammond, P., "Applied Electromagnetism," Pergamon Press, New York, 1971.
24. Grant, I. S. and W. R. Phillips, Electromagnetism, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
25. Li, L.-W., M.-S. Leong, P.-S. Kooi, and T.-S. Yeo, "Exact solutions of electromagnetic fields in both near and far zones radiated by thin circular-loop antennas: A general representation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 12, 1741-1748, 1997.
26. Drabowitch, S., A. Papiernik, H. Griffiths, and J. Encinas, Modern Antennas, Chapman and Hall, 1998.
27. Karalis, A., J. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer," Annals of Physics, Vol. 323, No. 1, 34-48, Jan. 2008.
28. Dragoman, M., M. Aldrigo, A. Dinescu, D. Dragoman, and A. Costanzo, "Towards a terahertz direct receiver based on graphene up to 10THz," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, No. 4, 044307, Jan. 2014.
29. Zhang, G., H. Yu, L. Jing, J. Li, Q. Liu, and X. Feng, "Wireless power transfer using high temperature superconducting pancake coils," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 24, No. 3, 3-7, 2013.
30. Sedwick, R. J., "Long range inductive power transfer with superconducting oscillators," Annals of Physics, Vol. 325, No. 2, 287-299, Feb. 2010.