A novel 3D Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) architecture based on a circular ring unit element is presented. The circular ring was made 3D by creating a cylindrical element of a certain length, adding an extra degree of freedom into the structure. The length of the cylinder is shown through electromagnetic simulation to have a significant effect on the frequency characteristics of the FSS. Increasing the length of the cylinder can change the FSS from a band-stop to a band-pass filter response. The center frequency of both band pass and band stop responses can also be tuned with adjustment to the length. Dielectric materials are introduced in the center of the cylindrical unit cell elements to simultaneously obtain a stop and pass band with a sharp transition. For high dielectric filling materials, the 3D periodic structure exhibits negative refractive index metamaterial properties. A parametric analysis was conducted on these new cylindrical unit elements, and a prototype 3D FSS structure has been constructed and experimentally validated.
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