Various multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems for vehicles are presented in this paper usingtwo uniquely designed elements: low profile wideband Planar Inverted-F antenna (PIFA), and compact wideband monopole for automotive application in the sub-6 GHz 5G systems and Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications that operate on the frequency range from 617 MHz to 6 GHz. This paper presents different MIMO configurations to be used in a low-profile housing or a shark fin style on the vehicle's roof. Each MIMO system achievesa satisfactory MIMO performance across the whole band withsuitable physical dimensions. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and diversity gain (DG) are calculated using MATLAB in each MIMO configuration as they represent the two key factors in the MIMO performance. Simulation results are presented along with measured data on 1-meter rolled-edge ground plane (GND) and on vehicle's roof from properly cut metal sheet prototypes. The results are discussed in terms of VSWR, passive isolation between elements, combined radiation patterns, port-efficiencies, ECC and DG.
A simple, compact, contactless, and high sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensorhas been developed to detect and classify precious transition metals in the S- and C-band regime, using reflection coefficients. A multi-band metamaterial, quadruple concentric circular split ring resonator, is specifically designed as a sensing enhancer, where the additional bands can effectively trigger the electromagnetic properties, as well as enhance the differentiation between the testing metal samples. The proposed sensor was tested on precious transition metals, silver, platinum and gold thin slabs of various thicknesses, from 0.5m to 3 mm. Five resonances were established in the frequency range of 2-8 GHz. Distinguishable frequency responses generated from different metal samples at those five resonances specify the capability of classifying the metal contents and thicknesses.