We present a low-cost and high-performance 5-bit programmable phased array antenna at Ku-band, which consists of 1-bit reconfigurable radiation structures, digital phase shifters, and coplanar waveguide feeding network. The 1-bit reconfigurable radiation structure utilizes symmetric geometries and PIN diodes to form stable 180° phase difference. The digital phase shifter provides 168.75° phase difference and together with the radiation structure form a 348.75° phase coverage. The antenna operates between 14.4 and 15.4 GHz, and the overall array contains 24×2 elements with each of them being individually addressable. By changing the states of the diodes and thus adjusting the phase coding sequences of the array, the antenna achieves 0°-60° precise beam scanning at 14.8 GHz, with the sidelobe level, cross-polarization, and gain fluctuation being less than -16 dB, -26 dB, and 2.4 dB, respectively. A prototype was fabricated to verify the design, and the measurement results agree well with simulations. Compared with traditional phased arrays composed of numerous phase shifters and T/R components, the proposed antenna features high performance, high flexibility, low profile, and low cost. The antenna provides a new and feasible solution of wavefront steering and will benefit the various application scenarios.
2. Valavan, S. E., D. Tran, A. G. Yarovoy, and A. G. Roederer, "Dual-band wide-angle scanning planar phased array in X/Ku-bands," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 5, 2514-2521, May 2014.
3. Yang, G., J. Li, R. Xu, Y. Ma, and Y. Qi, "Improving the performance of wide-angle scanning array antenna with a high-impedance periodic structure," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 1819-1822, 2016.
4. Beenamole, K. S., P. N. S. Kutiyal, U. K. Revankar, and V. M. Pandharipande, "Resonant microstrip meander line antenna element for wide scan angle active phased array antennas," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 50, No. 7, 1737-1740, 2008.
5. Yin, L., P. Yang, Y. Gan, F. Yang, S. Yang, and Z. Nie, "A low Cost, low in-Band RCS microstrip phased-array antenna with integrated 2-bit phase shifter," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 8, 4517-4526, Aug. 2021.
6. Li, X., Z. H. Wu, and Q. Cheng, "A 1-Bit reconfigurable antenna in Ku-band," Proc. Cross Strait Radio Sci. Wirel. Technol. Conf., CSRSWTC1, 7-9, 2021.
7. Xiao, Y., F. Yang, S. Xu, M. Li, K. Zhu, and H. Sun, "Design and implementation of a wideband 1-Bit transmitarray based on a Yagi-vivaldi unit cell," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 69, No. 7, 4229-4234, July 2021.
8. Deng, C., D. Liu, B. Yektakhah, and K. Sarabandi, "Series-fed beam-steerable millimeter-wave antenna design with wide spatial coverage for 5G mobile terminals," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 68, No. 5, 3366-3376, May 2020.
9. Zhang, X. G., W. X. Jiang, H. W. Tian, Z. X. Wang, Q. Wang, and T. J. Cui, "Pattern-reconfigurable planar array antenna characterized by digital coding method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 68, No. 2, 1170-1175, February 2020.
10. Wan, X., et al., "Reconfigurable sum and difference beams based on a binary programmable metasurface," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 20, No. 3, 381-385, March 2021.
11. Wang, X. Y., S. C. Tang, and J. X. Chen, "Differential-fed pattern-reconfigurable dielectric patch antenna and array with low cross-polarization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 70, No. 5, 3870-3875, 2022.
12. Xiao, S., C. Zheng, M. Li, J. Xiong, and B. Z. Wang, "Varactor-loaded pattern reconfigurable array for wide-angle scanning with low gain fluctuation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 5, 2364-2369, May 2015.
13. Zhang, Z., S. Cao, and J. Wang, "Azimuth-pattern reconfigurable planar antenna design using characteristic mode analysis," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 60043-60051, 2021.
14. Huang, C., B. Sun, W. B. Pan, and X. G. Luo, "Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface," Sci. Rep., Vol. 7, 42302, 2017.
15. Dai, J. Y., et al., "High-efficiency synthesizer for spatial waves based on space-time-coding digital metasurface," Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 14, 1900133, 2020.
16. Wang, Q., et al., "Millimeter-wave digital coding metasurfaces based on nematic liquid crystals," Adv. Theory Simul., Vol. 2, No. 12, Art. No. 1900141, 2019.
17. Yi, D., X. Wei, and Y. Xu, "Tunable microwave absorber based on patterned graphene," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 65, No. 8, 2819-2826, August 2017.
18. Cui, T. J., M. Q. Qi, X.Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, "Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials," Light-Sci. Appl., Vol. 3, No. 10, 218, October 2014.
19. Yang, H., et al., "A 1-bit 10 ⅹ 10 reconfigurable reflectarray antenna: Design, optimization, and experiment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 64, No. 6, 2246-2254, June 2016.
20. Wang, Y., S. H. Xu, F. Yang, and D. H. Werner, "1 bit dual-linear polarized reconfigurable transmitarray antenna using asymmetric dipole elements with parasitic bypass dipoles," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag., Vol. 69, No. 2, 1188-1192, February 2021.
21. Yang, J., et al., "Folded transmitarray antenna with circular polarization based on metasurface," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag., Vol. 69, No. 2, 806-814, February 2021.
22. Hu, J., Z. Hao, and Y. Wang, "A wideband array antenna with 1-bit digital-controllable radiation beams," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 10858-10866, 2018.
23. Liu, P., Y. Li, and Z. Zhang, "Circularly polarized 2 Bit reconfigurable beam-steering antenna array," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2416-2421, March 2020.
24. CST MWS, Accessed: 2020, , [Online], Available: https://www.cst.com/products/cstmws.
25. Henoch, B. T. and P. Tamm, "A 360 reflection-type diode phase modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 19, No. 1, 103-105, January 1971.
26. Hardin, R. N., E. J. Downey, and J. Munushian, "Electronically variable phase shifter utilizing variable capacitance diodes," Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, No. 5, 944-945, May 1960.
27. Lin, C., S. Chang, C. Chang, and Y. Shu, "Design of a reflection-type phase shifter with wide relative phase shift and constant insertion loss," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 55, No. 9, 1862-1868, September 2007.
28. Ellinger, F., R. Vogt, and W. Bachtold, "Compact reflective-type phase-shifter MMIC for C-band using a lumped-element coupler," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 49, No. 5, 913-917, May 2001.
29. Gupta, R. K., S. E. Anderson, and W. J. Getsinger, "Impedance-transforming 3-dB 90◦ hybrids," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 35, No. 12, 1303-1307, December 1987.
30. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2009.