Born approximation is widely used in (inverse) scattering problems to alleviate the computational di±culty, but its validity and applicability are not well defined. In this paper, a universal criterion to identify the validity of Born approximation is put forward based on applying the operator theory on the scattering integral equation. In comparison with the traditional criteria, the new one excels in its ability to give a wider and more rigorous valid frequency range, especially while non-uniform scatterers are under consideration. Numerical examples verify the validity and advantage of the new criterion.
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