This paper aims at finding an algorithm featuring good estimation performance and easy hardware implementation for tracking airborne target hidden in blind Doppler. Incorporating the current statistical model which is effective in dealing with the maneuvering motions that most blind Doppler issues are caused, a current statistical model particle filter (CSM-PF) is presented in this paper for tracking airborne targets hidden in blind Doppler. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CSM-PF shows similar performance with the interacting multiple model particle filter (IMM-PF) in terms of tracking accuracy and track continuity, but it avoids the difficulty of model selection for maneuvering targets. In addition, when hardware implementation is considered, the proposed CSM-PF has lower processing latency, fewer resource utilization and lower hardware complexity than the IMM-PF.
2. Chan, Y. K. and S. Y. Lim, "Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal generation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 1, 269-290, 2008.
3. Wang, C. J., B. Y. Wen, Z. G. Ma, W. D. Yan, and X. J. Huang, "Measurement of river surface current with FWCW radar system," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 3, 375-386, 2007.
4. Narayanan, R. M. and C. Kumru, "Implementation of fully polarimetric random noise radar," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 4, 125-128, 2005.
5. Abdelaziz, A. A., "Improving the performance of an antenna array by using radar absorbing cover," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 1, 129-138, 2008.
6. Wang, X., X. Guan, X. Ma, D. Wang, and Y. Su, "Calculating the poles of complex radar targets," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 14, 2065-2076, 2006.
7. Shi, Z. G., S. Qiao, K. S. Chen, W. Z. Cui, W. Ma, T. Jiang, and L. X. Ran, "Ambiguity functions of direct chaotic radar employing microwave chaotic Colpitts oscillator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 1-14, 2007.
8. Hebeish, A. A., M. A. Elgamel, R. A. Abdelhady, and A. A. Abdelaziz, "Factors affecting the performance of the radar absorbant textile materials of different types and structus," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 219-226, 2008.
9. Liu, H. W., T. Yoshimasu, and L. L. Sun, "CPW bandstop filter using periodically loaded slot resonators," Electronics Letters, Vol. 42, No. 6, 352-353, 2006.
10. Ghosh, S. and A. Chakrabarty, "Estimation of equivalent circuit of loaded trans-receive antenna system and its time domain studies," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, 89-103, 2006.
11. Mahanti, R. G. K., A. Chakrabarty, and S. Das, "Design of fully digital controlled reconfigurable array antennas with fixed dynamic range," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 1, 97-106, 2007.
12. Capineri, L., D. Daniels, P. Falorni, O. Lopera, and C. Windsor, "Estimation of relative permittivity of shallow soils by using the ground penetrating radar response from different buried targets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 2, 63-71, 2008.
13. Prasad, N. N. S. S. R. K., V. Shameem, U. B. Desai, and S. N. Merchant, "Improvement in target detection performance of pulse coded Doppler radar based on multicarrier modulation with fast Fourier transform (FFT)," IEE Proceedings --- Radar, Sonar and Navigation, Vol. 151, No. 1, 11-17, 2004.
14. Xue, W. and X. W. Sun, "Target detection of vehicle volume detecting radar based on Wigner-Hough transform," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 11, 1513-1523, 2007.
15. Rajabi, M., M. Mohammadirad, and N. Komjani, "Simulation of ultra wideband microstrip antenna using EPML-TLM," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 2, 115-124, 2008.
16. Liu, H. W., S. Ishikawa, A. An, S. Kurachi, and T. Yoshimasu, "Miniaturized microstrip meander-line antenna with very highpermittivity substrate for sensor applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 49, No. 10, 2438-2440, 2007.
17. Guo, Y. C., L. Xu, and X. W. Shi, "Improved loading profile for GPR antenna applicatioins," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 10, 1367-1378, 2007.
18. Gordon, N. and B. Ristic, "Tracking airborne targets occasionally hidden in the blind Doppler," Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 12, 383-393, 2002.
19. Zaugg, D. A., A. A. Samuel, D. E. Waagen, and H. A. Schmitt, "A combined particle/Kalman filter for improved tracking of beam aspect targets," IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, 535-538, 2003.
20. Du, S. C., Z. G. Shi, W. Zang, and K. S. Chen, "Using interacting multiple model particle filter to track airborne targets hidden in blind Doppler," Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1277-1282, 2007.
21. Tanizaki, H., Nonlinear Filters: Estimation and Application, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996.
22. Doucet, A., N. D. Freitas, and N. Gordon, Sequential Monte Carlo Methods in Practice, Springer, New York, USA, 2001.
23. Arulampalam, M. S., S. Maskell, N. Gordon, and T. Clapp, "A tutorial on particle filters for online nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian tracking," IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 2, 174-188, 2002.
24. Ristic, B., S. Arulampalam, and N. Gordon, Beyond the Kalman Filter: Particle Filter for Tracking Applications, Artech House, Boston, 2004.
25. Zang, W., Z. G. Shi, S. C. Du, and K. S. Chen, "Novel roughening method for reentry vehicle tracking using particle filter," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 14, 1969-1981, 2007.
26. Hong, S. H., Z. G. Shi, and K. S. Chen, "Novel roughening algorithm and hardware architecture for bearings-only tracking using particle filter," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, 411-422, 2008.
27. Singer, R. A., "Estimating optimal tracking filter performance for manned maneuvering targets," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 4, 473-483, 1970.
28. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "Survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part I: dynamic models," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1333-1364, 2003.
29. Mo, L. B., et al., "Unbiased converted measurements for tracking," IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1023-1027, 1998.
30. Pitt, M. K. and N. Shephard, "Filtering via simulation: Auxiliary particle filter," Journal of the American Statistical Assocation, Vol. 94, No. 446, 590-599, 1999.
31. Gordon, N. J., D. J. Salmond, and A. F. M. Smith, "Novel approach to nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation," IEE Proceeding-F, Vol. 140, No. 2, 107-113, 1993.
32. Bolic, M., P. M. Djuric, and S. Hong, "Resamping algorithms for particle filters: A computational complexity perspective," EURASIP Journal of Applied Signal Processing, No. 15, 2267-2277, 2004.