Vol. 106

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2022-08-22

UWB Antenna as a Sensor for the Analysis of Dissolved Particles and Water Quality

By Jeyagobi Logeswaran and Rajasekar Boopathi Rani
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 106, 31-39, 2022
doi:10.2528/PIERL22062901

Abstract

This paper aims to test the concentration of dissolved particles such as salt and sugar in a water sample and also test the quality of water. Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna has been designed and used to test the water sample. The proposed UWB antenna has been resonated from 3.2 GHz to 10.6 GHz. The fractional bandwidth of the UWB antenna is 1.15. The measured antenna's characteristics were in good agreement with the simulated results. Then, the designed UWB antenna was used as a sensor on the water samples such as distilled water, rainwater, pond water, seawater, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) water. Hence, this paper explains the concentration of dissolved particles and testing of the quality of the water sample by using the return loss characteristics of the antenna when it is immersed in the water sample. This technique can be further extended for testing the quality of any other liquids.

Citation


Jeyagobi Logeswaran and Rajasekar Boopathi Rani, "UWB Antenna as a Sensor for the Analysis of Dissolved Particles and Water Quality," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 106, 31-39, 2022.
doi:10.2528/PIERL22062901
http://jpier.org/PIERL/pier.php?paper=22062901

References


    1. Wutich, A., A. Y. Rosinger, J. Stoler, W. E. Jepson, and A. A. Brewis, "Measuring human water needs," American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 32, No. 1, e23350, 2019.

    2. Kriss, R., K. J. Pieper, J. L. Parks, and M. A. Edwards, "Challenges of detecting lead in drinking water using at-home test kits," Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 55, No. 3, 1964-1972, 2021.
    doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c07614

    3. Peng, J., K. Kumar, M. A. Gross, T. E. Kunetz, and Z. Wen, "Removal of total dissolved solids from wastewater using a revolving algal biofilm reactor," Water Environment Research, Vol. 92, No. 5, 766-778, 2019.
    doi:10.1002/wer.1273

    4. Addabbo, T., A. Fort, M. Intravaia, M. Mugnaini, M. Tani, V. Vignoli, S. De Muro, and M. Tesei, "Working principle and performance of a scalable gravimetric system for the monitoring of access to public places," Sensors, Vol. 20, 7225, Basel, Switzerland, 2020.

    5. Taylor, M., H. A. Elliott, and L. O. Navitsky, "Relationship between total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity in Marcellus hydraulic fracturing fluids," Water Science and Technology: A Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, Vol. 77, No. 7-8, 1998-2004, 2018.
    doi:10.2166/wst.2018.092

    6. Njokweni, S. N. and P. Kumar, "Salt and sugar detection system using a compact microstrip patch antenna," International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1-9, 2020.
    doi:10.21307/ijssis-2020-027

    7. Cicchetti, R., E. Miozzi, and O. Testa, "Wideband and UWB antennas for wireless applications: A comprehensive review," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 1-45, 2017.

    8. Huang, B., W. Lin, J. Huang, J. Zhang, G. Zhang, and F. Wu, "A patch/dipole hybrid-mode antenna for sub-6 GHz communication," Sensors, Vol. 19, 1358, Basel, Switzerland, 2019.

    9. Islam, M. T., Md. N. Rahman, M. S. J. Singh, and Md. Samsuzzaman, "Detection of salt and sugar contents in water on the basis of dielectric properties using microstrip antenna-based sensor," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 4118-4126, 2018.
    doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2787689

    10. Motovilova, E. and S. Y. Huang, "A review on reconfigurable liquid dielectric antennas," Materials, Vol. 13, 1863, 2020.
    doi:10.3390/ma13081863

    11. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 1982.

    12. Cheng, E. M., M. Fareq, M. Afendi, Y. S. Lee, S. F. Khor, W. H. Tan, N. Fazli, A. Z. Abdullah, and M. Jusoh, "Development of microstrip patch antenna sensing system for salinity and sugar detection in water," International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 5, 31-36, 2014.

    13. Bhushan, S., S. Kumar, N. Singh, and S. Kumar, "Defected ground split ring resonator-based sensor for adulteration detection in fluids," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 121, 1593-1606, 2021.
    doi:10.1007/s11277-021-08686-8

    14. Rahman, Md. N., M. T. Islam, and Md. S. Sobuz, "Salinity and sugar detection system using microstrip patch antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 60, 1092-1096, 2018.
    doi:10.1002/mop.31108

    15. He, X., A. J. Fowler, and M. Toner, "Water activity and mobility in solutions of glycerol and small molecular weight sugars: Implication for cryo- and lyopreservation," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, 074702, 2013.