Vol. 95

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

A Model Assisted Probability of Detection Approach for ECNDT of Hidden Defect in Aircraft Structures

By Mohammed Chebout, Hakim Azizi, and Mohammed Rachid Mekideche
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 95, 1-8, 2021


In a probabilistic approach, the performance of the control is characterized by statistical indi-cators such as the Probability of Detection (PoD) which describes the probability of detecting a defect of a given size knowing that it is present in the inspected structure. In this paper, an experimental analysis and simulation using FEM of the eddy current testing on three-dimensional riveted structure is performed on small fatigue cracks to identify and quantify probability of detec-tion curves. The PoD curves are plotted in terms of characteristic dimensions of the defect (depth, length, orientation, etc.) and are dependent on a number of factors including material, geometry, defect type, operator, and environmental effects.


Mohammed Chebout, Hakim Azizi, and Mohammed Rachid Mekideche, "A Model Assisted Probability of Detection Approach for ECNDT of Hidden Defect in Aircraft Structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 95, 1-8, 2021.


    1. Sasi, B., B. P. C. Rao, T. Jayakumar, and B. Raj, "Development of eddy current test procedure for nondestructive detection of fatigue defects and corrosion in rivets of air-intake structures," Defence Sci. J., Vol. 59, No. 2, 106-112, 2009.

    2. Minhhuy, L., K. Jungmin, K. Sejin, and L. Jinyi, "Nondestructive testing of pitting corrosion cracks in rivet of multilayer structures," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 17, No. 11, 1433-1442, 2016.

    3. Jenson, F., S. Mahaut, P. Calmon, and C. Poidevin, Simulation based PoD evaluation of NDI techniques, Proc. Conf. Non-destructive Testing, Moscow, Russia, 2010.

    4. Le Diraison, Y., P. Y. Joubert, and D. Placko, "Characterization of subsurface defects in aeronautical riveted lap joints using multi-frequency eddy current imaging," NDT & E Int., Vol. 42, No. 2, 133-140, 2009.

    5. Simsir, M. and A. Ankarav, "Comparison of two nondestructive inspection techniques on the basis of sensitivity and reliability," Mater. Design, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1433-1439, 2007.

    6. Zhang, J., M. Yuan, Z. Xu, H. Kim, and S. Song, "Analytical approaches to eddy current nondestructive evaluation for stratified conductive structures," J. Mech. Sci. Technol., Vol. 29, No. 10, 1-7, 2015.

    7. Zhang, W. B., S. L. Pan, P. J. Huang, and D. A. Hou, "New approach to improve the probability of detection of eddy current inspection," Adv. Mat. Res., Vol. 712–715, 2026-2029, 2013.

    8. Ignatovich, S. R. and N. I. Bouraou, "The reliability of detecting cracks during nondestructive testing of aircraft components," Russ. J. Nondestruct. Test., Vol. 49, No. 5, 294-300, 2013.

    9. Maleo, N., "PICASSO improved reliability inspection of aeronautic structure through simulation supported PoD," 4th International Symposium on NDT in Aerospace, Augsburg, Germany, 2012.

    10. Seal, M. D., M. W. Hyde, IV, and M. J. Havrilla, "Nondestructive complex permittivity and permeability extraction using a two-layer dual-waveguide probe measurement geometry," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 123-142, 2012.

    11. Yusa, N., W. Chen, and H. Hashizume, "Demonstration of probability of detection taking consideration of both the length and the depth of a flaw explicitly," NDT & E Int., Vol. 81, 1-8, 2016.

    12. Sabariego, R. V. and P. A. Dular, "Perturbation approach for the modeling of eddy current nondestructive testing problems with differential probes," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 42, No. 4, 1289-1292, 2007.

    13. Cacciola, M., F. C. Morabito, D. Polimeni, and M. Versaci, "Fuzzy characterization of flawed metallic plates with eddy current tests," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 72, 241-252, 2007.

    14. Dogaru, T., C. H. Smith, R. W. Schneider, and S. Smith, "Deep crack detection around fastener holes in airplane multi-layered structures using GMR-based eddy current probes," AIP Conference Proceeding, Vol. 700, No. 1, 398-405, 2004.

    15. Guang, Y., G. Dib, L. Udpa, A. Tamburrino, and S. Udpa, "Rotating field EC-GMR sensor for crack detection at fastener site in layered structures," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 15, No. 1, 463-470, 2015.

    16. Chebout, M., M. R. Mekideche, A. Hafaifa, A. Kouzou, and H. Allag, "Impedance measurement and computation for the steam generator tube integrity using the ECNDT technique," Elektrotehniski Vestnik., Vol. 85, No. 5, 235-240, 2018.

    17. Jiang, Q., C. Chen, and L. Pheng Khoo, "Analytical algorithm of inductive field for realising a smart eddy current NDT system," Eng. Computation, Vol. 20, No. 7, 835-854, 2003.

    18. Zaidi, H., L. Santandrea, G. Krebs, Y. Le Bihan, and E. Demaldent, "Finite element simulation of the probe displacement in eddy current testing," Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mech., Vol. 45, No. 1, 887-893, 2014.

    19. Rachek, M. and M. Feliachi, "3-D movement simulation techniques using FE methods: Application to eddy current non-destructive testing," NDT & E Int., Vol. 40, 35-42, 2007.

    20. Rosel, A. and G. Persson, "Model based capability assessment of an automated eddy current inspection procedure on flat surfaces," Res. Nondestruct. Eval., Vol. 24, No. 3, 154-176, 2013.

    21. Santandrea, L. and Y. Le Bihan, "Using COMSOL multiphysics in an eddy current nondestructive testing context," Proceeding of the COMSOL Conference, Paris, France, 2010.

    22. Betta, G., L. Ferrigno, and M. Laracca, "GMR-based ECT instrument for detection and characterization of crack on a planar specimen: A hand-held solution," IEEE Trans. Instr. & Meas., Vol. 61, No. 2, 505-512, 2012.

    23. Bato, M. R., A. Hor, A. Rautureau, and C. Bes, "Impact of human and environmental factors on the probability of detection during NDT control by eddy currents," Meas., Vol. 133, 222-232, 2018.