We propose and demonstrate the use of radiation pattern measurement method for on-wafer antennas for the first time that is capable of in-depth antenna characterization with limited equipment. This one-antenna method extracts gain without the need for a second antenna in the on-wafer probe station environment. A combination of reference reflector translation and rotation allows radiation pattern sampling at multiple angles enabling characterization over the relevant solid angle. Several microstrip patch antennas with varying beam directions (0˚, 20˚, and 30˚) were measured with the proposed method over 120˚ in the H-plane with good agreement between simulation and experiment. The method offers a cost-effective and time-efficient solution for probe-fed, on-wafer antenna radiation performance characterization.
2. Singh, H., J. Oh, C. Kweon, X. Qin, H. Shao, and C. Ngo, "A 60 GHz wireless network for enabling uncompressed video communication," IEEE Communication Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 12, 71-78, 2008.
3. Menzel, W. and A. Moebius, "Antenna concepts for millimeter-wave automotive radar sensors," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 7, 2372-2379, July 2012.
4. Meinel, H. H., "Evolving automotive radar — From the very beginnings into the future," 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2014), 3107-3114, Hague, Netherlands, 2014.
5. Simons, R. N., "Novel on-wafer radiation pattern measurement technique for MEMS actuator based reconfigurable patch antennas," NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N, Vol. 2, October 2002.
6. Zwick, T., C. Baks, U. R. Pfeiffer, D. Liu, and B. P. Gaucher, "Probe based MMW antenna measurement setup," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Symposium, 747-750, Monterey, CA, USA, 2004.
7. Beer, S. and T. Zwick, "Probe based radiation pattern measurements for highly integrated millimeter-wave antennas," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 1-5, Barcelona, 2010.
8. Gulan, H., S. Beer, S. Diebold, C. Rusch, A. Leuther, I. Kallfas, and T. Zwick, "Probe based antenna measurements up to 325 GHz for upcoming millimeter-wave applications," 2013 International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), 228-231, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2013.
9. Ito, T., Y. Tsutsumi, S. Obayashi, H. Shoki, and T. Morooka, "Radiation pattern measurement system for millimeter-wave antenna fed by contact probe," 2009 European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 1543-1546, Rome, Italy, 2009.
10. Titz, D., F. Ferrero, and C. Luxey, "Development of a millimeter-wave measurement setup and dedicated techniques to characterize the matching and radiation performance of probe-fed antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 4, 188-203, 2012.
11. Caekenberghe, K. V., K. M. Brakora, W. Hong, K. Jumani, D. Liao, M. Rangwala, Y. Wee, X. Zhu, and K. Sarabandi, "A 2–40 GHz probe station based setup for on-wafer antenna measurements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 10, 3241-3247, 2008.
12. Ranvier, S., M. Kyro, C. Icheln, C. Luxey, R. Staraj, and P. Vainikainen, "Compact 3-D on-wafer radiation pattern measurement system for 60 GHz antennas," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, No. 2, 319-324, 2009.
13. Shamim, A., L. Roy, N. Fong, and N. G. Tarr, "24 GHz on-chip antennas and balun on bulk Si for air transmission," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 2, 303-311, 2008.
14. Klein, B., M. Jenning, P. Seiler, K. Wolf, and D. Plettemeier, "On-chip antenna pattern measurement setup up to 325 GHz," 2014 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Conference Proceedings, 175-176, Kaohsiung, 2014.
15. Jam, A. and K. Sarabandi, "A submillimeter-wave near-field measurement setup for on-wafer pattern and gain characterization of antennas and arrays," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 66, No. 4, 802-811, April 2017.
16. Mohammadpour-Aghdam, K., S. Brebels, A. Enayati, R. Faraji-Dana, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and W. DeRaedt, "RF probe influence study in millimeter-wave antenna pattern measurements," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 4, 413-420, July 2011.
17. Reniers, A. C. F., A. R. van Dommele, A. B. Smolders, and M. H. A. J. Herben, "The influence of the probe connection on mm-wave antenna measurements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 9, 3819-3825, September 2015.
18. Liu, Q., U. Johannsen, M. C. van Beurden, and A. B. Smolders, "Antenna-on-chip radiation pattern characterization — Analysis of different approaches," 2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-5, Krakow, Poland, 2019.
19. Du, Z., V. Viikari, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Tamminen, and A. V. Raisanen, "Antenna pattern retrieval from reflection coefficient measurement with reflective loads," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 148, 15-22, 2014.
20. Ala-Laurinaho, J., J. Zheng, and A. V. Raisanen, "One-antenna gain measurement in a probe station," 2018 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurement and Application (CAMA), 1-4, Vasteras, 2018.
21. Zheng, J., J. Ala-Laurinaho, and A. V. Raisanen, "On the one-antenna gain measurement method in probe station environment at mm-wave frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 68, No. 11, 4510-4517, November 2019.
22. Bhardwaj, S., N. K. Nahar, and J. L. Volakis, "A cost-effective phaseless pattern measurement method for a CP antenna in a submillimeter-wave band," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 1683-1686, 2017.