The proposed theoretical path-loss prediction procedure and measured results of radio wave propagation in an orchard environment are presented. The wireless sensor network (WSN) in a Durian orchard is primarily chosen to be an example of this study. The three-dimensional (3-D) modified uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) for curved impedance surface is employed for theoretical path-loss prediction in this paper. The orchard scenario is modeled by using canonical geometries such as a dielectric flat surface and cylindrical structures with an impedance surface to respectively represent ground and trees. Moreover, since the wireless sensor node is attached to the outside peel of a hanging durian fruit, the fruit partially acts as a wireless sensor node. Therefore, to obtain greater accuracy in the source radiation pattern, the Gaussian beam (GB) expansion via the CSP technique is used for source modeling. The path loss prediction from the proposed numerical procedure and the measured results are in good agreement. The proposed numerical procedure to calculate the path loss from actual scenario of the orchard is useful for network planning such as the pre-harvesting WSN system and other orchard scenarios.
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