This paper presents a high-efficiency ferrite meander antenna (HEMA), which can be used to realize a 2×2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) communication system when it is used at both the transmitter and the receiver ends. This antenna is designed to operate at 2.45 GHz center frequency (fc). It consists of two spatially separated half-cycle microstrip meander structures. Ferrite material is not used for the entire substrate, only beneath each meander structure. A standard FR-4 substrate is utilized as a system board. Impedance bandwidth and radiation patterns of the fabricated antenna are measured and compared with those of the simulation results. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the fabricated antenna is 262 MHz, whereas the simulated bandwidth is 235 MHz. According to the simulations, the gain and efficiency of the antenna are 2.2 dB and 81%, respectively. The efficiency of the antenna is confirmed by measurements. By using the simulated radiation patterns, correlation between the radiation patterns is calculated and employed in the generation of the channel matrix. Mutual impedance of the antennas and antenna efficiency are also included in the channel matrix, which in turn is used in bit error rate (BER) and ergodic capacity simulations. BER and ergodic capacity are utilized as performance metrics. The effect of antenna efficiency, mutual impedance of the antennas, and correlation between radiation patterns on system performance are presented.
2. Foschini, , G. S. and M. J. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Communications , Vol. 6, 311-335, 1998.
3. Andrews, , M. R., P. P. Mitra, and R. deCarvalho, "Trippling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization," Nature, Vol. 409, 316-318, 2001.
4. Dong, L., H. Ling, and R. W. Heath, Jr., "Multiple-input-multiple-output wireless communication systems using antenna patttern diversity," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, GLOBECOMM' 2002, 997-1001, 2002.
5. Vaughan, , R. G. and J. B. Anderson, "A multiport patch antenna for mobile communications," Proceedings of 14th European Microwave Conference , 607-612, 1984.
6. Vaughan, , R. G., "Two-port higher mode circular microstrip antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 36, 309-321, 1988.
7. Dammerle, , F. and W. Wiesbeck, "A biconical multibeam antenna for space-division multiple access," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 46, 782-787, 1998..
8. Forenza, , A. , R. W. Heath, and Jr., "Benefit of pattern diversity via two-element array of circular patch antennas in indoor clustered MIMO channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications,, Vol. 54, 943-954, 2006..
9. Forenza, , A. , R. W. Heath, and Jr., "Optimization methodology for designing 2-CPAs exploiting pattern diversity in clustered MIMO channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 56, 1748-1759, 2008.
10. Bae, S., Y.-K. Hong, J.-J. Lee, J.-H. Park, J. Jalli, G. Abo, H. M. Kwon, and C. K. K. Jayasooriya, "Miniature and higher-order mode ferrite MIMO ring patch antenna for mobile communication system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 25, 53-74, 2010.
11. Piazza, , D., P. Mookiah, M. D'Amico, and K. R. Dandekar, "Pattern reconfigurable circular patch antenna for MIMO communications," Proceedings of RILEM Conference, 2008.
12. Piazza, D., , M. D'Amico, and K. R. Dandekar, "MIMO communication system with reconfigurable circular patch antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 1-4, 2008.
13. Jayasooriya, , C., H. Kwon, S. Bae, and Y.-K. Hong, "Miniaturized multimode circular patch antennas for MIMO communications," IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), 1-5, 2009.
14. Jayasooriya, , C. K., H. M. Kwon, S. Bae, and Y.-K. Hong, "Miniaturized circular antennas for MIMO communication systems --- Pattern diversity," 2010 International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA) , 331-334, 2010.
15. Jayasooriya, , C. K. K., H. M. Kwon, S. Bae, and Y.-K. Hong, "Miniaturized single circular and single ring patch antenna for MIMO communications exploiting pattern diversity," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC),, 1-5, 2010.
16. Rajo-Iglesias, , E., , O. Quevedo-Teruel, M. L. Pablo-Gonzalez, and M. Sanchez-Fernandez, "A compact dual mode microstrip patch antenna for MIMO applications," Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium,, 3651-3654, 2006.
17. Balanis, , C. A., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., , New Jersey, 2005.
18. Yang, , C., Y. Yao, and X. Chen, "Novel compact multiband MIMO antenna for mobile terminal," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 9, 2012.
19. Ssorin, , V., , A. Artemenko, A. Sevastyanov, and R. Maslennikov, "Compact bandwidth-optimized two element MIMO antenna system for 2.5--2.7 GHz band," Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 319-323, 2011.
20. Dioum, , I., A. Diallo, C. Luxey, and S. Farsi, "Dual-band monopole MIMO antennas for LTE mobile phones," ICECom, 2010 Conference Proceedings, 1-4, 2010.
21. Li, , W.-Y. and W.-J. Chen, "Concurrent 2-port/3-port MIMO antenna system for UMTS/LTE2500 operation in the mobile phone," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI),, 1918-1921, 2011.
22. Kuonanoja, , R., "Low correlation handset antenna conguration for LTE MIMO applications," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 1-4, 2010.
23. Lee, , J., Y.-K. Hong, S. Bae, G. Abo, W.-M. Seong, and G.-H. Kim, "Miniature long-term evolution (LTE) MIMO ferrite antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 603-606, 2011.
24. Bhatti, , R., , S. Yi, and S.-O. Park, "Compact antenna array with port decoupling for LTE-standardized mobile phones," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 1430-1433, 2009.
25. Sato, , H., T. Hayashi, Y. Koyanagi, and H. Morishita , " Small array antenna for 2 2 MIMO terminal using folded loop antenna," First European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2006) , 1-5, 2006.
26. Sharawi, , M., , Y. Faouri, and S. Iqbal, "Design and fabrication of a dual electrically small MIMO antenna system for 4G terminals," 2011 German Microwave Conference (GeMIC), 1-4, 2011.
27. Blanch, , S., , J. Romeu, and I. Corbella, "Exact representation of antenna system diversity performance from input parameter description," Electronics Letters,, Vol. 3, No. 9, 705-707, 2003.
28. Pedersen, , K. I., , P. E. Mogensen, and B. H. Fleury, "Spatial channel characteristics in outdoor environments and their impact on BS antenna system performance," Proceedings of 48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 719-723, 1998.
29. Soma, , P., , D. Baum, V. Erceg, R. Krishnamoorthy, and A. Paulraj, "Analysis and modeling of multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) radio channel based on outdoor measurements conducted at 2.5 GHz for fixed BWA applications," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC),, Vol. 1, 272-276, 2002.
30. Lee, , J.-H. and C.-C. Cheng, "Spatial correlation of multiple antenna arrays in wireless communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 132, 347-368, 2012.
31. Correira, , L. M., , Wireless Flexible Personalized Communications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., , New York, , 2001.
32. Alrabadi, , O. N., C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis, N. Marchetti, and R. Rasad, "Spatial multiplexing via antenna switching," IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 13, 59413-596, 2009.
33. Pozar, , D. M., , Microwave Engineering , 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2005.
34. Alamouti, , S. M., "A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications , Vol. 16, No. 8, 1451-1458, 1998.