The main purpose of this paper is to separately estimate the important surface parameters (soil moisture and roughness) by using full polarimetric bistatic measurements. The results provide a basis for new satellite application of future bistatic measurement systems such as the TanDEM-X satellite mission. Initially, bistatic X-band measurements, which have been recorded in the Bistatic Measurement Facility (BMF) at the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Microwaves and Radar Institute, will be presented. The bistatic measurement sets are composed of soils with different well-known statistical roughness scales and different moistures. The BMF has been calibrated using the Isolated Antenna Calibration Technique (IACT). The validation of the calibration was achieved by measuring the reflectivity of fresh water. In the second part, the assessment of the surface parameters (soil moisture and surface roughness) using the well calibrated data introduced in the former related part, will be detailed. The validation of the specular algorithm by estimating the soil moisture of two surfaces with different roughness scales will be reported. Additionally, a new technique using the coherent term of the Integral Equation Method (IEM) to estimate the soil roughness will be presented, as well as the sensitivity of phase and reflectivity with regard to moisture variation and therefore the penetration depth was evaluated. Current results demonstrate a non-linear relationship between the signal phase and the soil moisture, as expected, confirming the possibility of using DInSAR to measure variations in soil moisture.
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