Fluorescence confocal laser scanning endomicroscopy is a novel tool combining confocal microscopy and endoscopy for in-vivo subcellular structure imaging with comparable resolution as the traditional microscope. In this paper, we propose a three-channel fluorescence confocal microscopy system based on fiber bundle and two excitation laser lines of 488nm and 650nm. Three fluorescent photomultiplier detecting channels of red, green and blue can record multi-color fluorescence signals from single sample site simultaneously. And its ability for in-vivo multi-channel fluorescence detection at subcellular level is verified. Moreover, the system has achieved an effective field of view of 154μm in diameter with high resolution. With its multi-laser scanning, multi-channel detection, flexible probing, and in-vivo imaging abilities it will become a powerful tool in bio-chemical research and diagnostics, such as the investigation of the transport mechanism of nano-drugs in small animals.
A dual-mode hyperspectral imager using field of view scanning needs no moving macro parts. It could work in dual-mode (macro imaging and micro imaging) and is equipped with a conjugated camera for quick object-selection and focusing. By adjusting the imaging lens and achieving the image clarity on the conjugated camera, we could find the correct location and focusing of the ROIs simultaneously instead of inefficiently checking the hyperspectral image after the whole scanning process. The whole system was applied to the study of spectral characteristics of blood oxygen in human hands and the microscopic identification of algae, showing a great potential of clinical and marine applications of our system.
The multilevel fast physical optics (MLFPO) is proposed to accelerate the computation of the fields scattered from electrically large coated scatterers. This method is based on the quadratic patch subdivision and the multilevel technology. First, the quadratic patches are employed rather than the planar patches to discretize the considered scatterer. Hence, the number of the contributing patches is cut dramatically, thus making the workload of the MLFPO method much lower than that of the traditional Gordon's method. Next, the multilevel technology is introduced in this work to avoid calculating the physical optics scattered fields from the considered scatterer directly, so that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, numerical results have demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the MLFPO method based on the quadratic patches.
It becomes more and more challenging to satisfy the long-term demand of transmission capacity in wireless networks if we limit our research within the frame of traditional electromagnetic wave characteristics (e.g., frequency, amplitude, phase and polarization). The potential of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for unleashing new capacity in the severely congested spectrum of commercial communication systems is generating great interest in wireless communication field. The OAM vortex wave/beam has different topological charges, which are orthogonal to each other. It provides a new way for multiplexing in wireless communications. Electromagnetic wave or synthetic beam carrying OAM has a spiral wavefront phase structure, which may provide a new degree of freedom or better orthogonality in spatial domain. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental theory of OAM. Then, OAM generation and reception methods are equally demonstrated. Furthermore, we present the latest development of OAM in wireless communication. We further discuss the controversial topic ``whether OAM provides a new degree of freedom'' and illustrate our views on the relationship between OAM and MIMO. Finally, we suggest some open research directions of OAM.
In this paper, we develop numerical methods for using vector spherical and spheroidal waves in the hybrid method to calculate the multiple scattering of objects of complex shapes, based on the rigorous solutions of Maxwell equations in the form of Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations (FL). The steps in the hybrid method are: (1) calculating the T-matrix of each single object using vector spherical/spheroidal waves and (2) vector spherical/spheroidal waves addition theorem. We utilize the commercial software HFSS to calculate the scattered fields of a complex object on the circumscribing sphere or spheroid for multiple incidences and polarizations. The T-matrix of spherical waves or spheroidal waves are then obtained from these scattered fields. To perform wave transformations (i.e. addition theorem) for vector spherical/spheroidal waves, we develop robust numerical methods. Numerical results are illustrated for T-matrices and numerical vector addition theorems.
Potential-based integral equations are being explored to develop numerical methods that avoid low frequency breakdown issues and are better suited to couple to quantum physics computations. Important classes of quantum electrodynamics problems are typically formulated in the radiation gauge, leading to interest in efficient numerical solutions able to be performed directly in this gauge. This work presents time domain integral equations for penetrable regions that are developed in the radiation gauge. An appropriate marching-on-in-time discretization scheme is developed that fully conforms to the spatial and temporal Sobolev space properties of the integral equations. It is shown that following this approach leads to a discrete system with improved stability properties that produces accurate results down to very low frequencies. The accuracy and stability of this formulation at low frequencies are shown through numerical results.
A new design for a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with a capability of switching between circular, linear horizontal and linear vertical polarizations is introduced. The DRA, operating at the center frequency of 3.25 GHz, is fed by a microstrip line through two dog-bone slots. In this design, only two PIN diodes are employed as switching elements which significantly decreases the complexity of DC biasing circuits compared to existing designs. The PIN diodes are embedded in transformers connected to the feeding microstrip lines. This technique conveniently allows to make compensations for parasitic effects of the PIN diodes junction capacitors on the antenna matching bandwidth. The circular, linear horizontal and linear vertical polarizations have a bandwidth of 22%, 17% and 18%, respectively. The 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth for the circular polarization is 12%. The measured results obtained from prototyped antenna agree well with simulated results of the designed antenna system, which confirms the validity of the design process.
This paper presents an overview and review of the fundamental implicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) schemes for computational electromagnetics (CEM) and educational mobile apps. The fundamental implicit FDTD schemes are unconditionally stable and feature the most concise update procedures with matrix-operator-free right-hand sides (RHS). We review the developments of fundamental implicit schemes, which are simpler and more efficient than all previous implicit schemes having RHS matrix operators. They constitute the basis of unification for many implicit schemes including classical ones, providing insights into their inter-relations along with simplifications, concise updates and efficient implementations. Based on the fundamental implicit schemes, further developments can be carried out more conveniently. Being the core CEM on mobile apps, the multiple one-dimensional (M1-D) FDTD methods are also reviewed. To simulate multiple transmission lines, stubs and coupled transmission lines efficiently, the M1-D explicit FDTD method as well as the unconditionally stable M1-D fundamental alternating direction implicit (FADI) FDTD and coupled line (CL) FDTD methods are discussed. With the unconditional stability of FADI methods, the simulations are fast-forwardable with enhanced efficiency. This is very useful for quick concept illustrations or phenomena demonstrations during interactive teaching and learning. Besides time domain, many frequency-domain methods are well-suited for further developments of useful mobile apps as well.
A periodic millimeter wave leaky-wave antenna (LWA), which has two different types of radiator elements that enable backward to forward radiation, is proposed. The unit-cell of the LWA consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip lines and two corrugated substrate integrated waveguide (CSIW) cells with S-shaped quarter-wavelength open-circuit stubs. In addition to two parallel edge radiators, a single etched transverse slot with a tilt angle acts as an ancillary radiator, which ensures impedance matching in a large frequency range and achieves the backward to forward scanning. We analyze the proposed design through simulations, characterize a fabricated prototype and find it to have good radiation properties including broad impedance bandwidth. The measurement results show a high peak gain from 11 to 15.8 dBi with a large scanning angle range from -34° to +22° in the K-band operating frequency range.
We report the second-harmonic generation (SHG) from single GaN nanowire. The diameter of the GaN nanowire varies from 150 to 400 nm. We present a model for the SHG process in the GaN nanowire; the analysis shows quantitatively that the SHG is dominated by its surface area. The effective second order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(2)eff) increases as the diameter of the GaN nanowire decreases. For 150-nm diameter GaN nanowire, χ(2)eff reaches 136 pm/V.