Vol. 112

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2022-08-04

Propagation Measurements and Modelling of Natural Tropical Caves

By Qi Ping Soo, Soo Yong Lim, Irfan Farhan Mohamad Rafie, David Wee Gin Lim, Kian Meng Yap, and Sian Lun Lau
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 112, 139-149, 2022
doi:10.2528/PIERM22061402

Abstract

Caves are a vital environment with an understudied propagation characteristic to date. In this paper, we investigate the propagation environments of three tourist caves in Malaysia at 900 MHz, 2.4 and 5.8 GHz. Path loss exponents are derived from measurement data for line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) sections for vertical-vertical (VV) and horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarizations. Channel fading effects are subsequently analyzed. Beyond the conventional method of computing the path loss exponent values, machine learning is also incorporated into the processing of data for yielding optimum results. The findings of this work lay a good foundation towards a greater understanding of the propagation scenarios in natural tourist caves, and they help towards establishing reliable wireless communications inside such environments.

Citation


Qi Ping Soo, Soo Yong Lim, Irfan Farhan Mohamad Rafie, David Wee Gin Lim, Kian Meng Yap, and Sian Lun Lau, "Propagation Measurements and Modelling of Natural Tropical Caves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 112, 139-149, 2022.
doi:10.2528/PIERM22061402
http://jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=22061402

References


    1. Laborra, T., L. Azpilicueta, P. L. Iturri, E. Aguirre, and F. Falcone, "Estimation of wireless coverage in complex cave environments for speleology applications," Proc. USNC-URSI Radio Sci. Meeting, 120, Memphis, TN, USA, Jul. 2014.

    2. Zhou, C., T. Plass, R. Jacksha, and J. Waynert, "RF propagation in mines and tunnels," Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 57, 88-102, IEEE, 2015.
    doi:10.1109/MAP.2015.2453881

    3. Pao, H. Y., "Probability density function for waves propagation in a straight rough wall tunnel," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Antennas Propag., 2975-2978, Monterey, CA, USA, Jun. 2004.

    4. Rak, M. and P. Pechac, "UHF propagation in caves and subterranean galleries," IEEE Transactions on Antennas an Propagation, Vol. 55, 1134-1138, Apr. 2007.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.893385

    5. Bedford, M. D. and G. A. Kennedy, "Modeling microwave propagation in natural caves passages," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 12, 6463-6471, 2014.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2364295

    6. Soo, Q. P., S. Y. Lim, D. W. G. Lim, K. M. Yap, and S. L. Lau, "Propagation measurement of a natural cave-turned-wine-cellar," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 5, 743-746, 2018.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2018.2813310

    7. Lindgren, S. and F. Galeazzi, "3D laser scanning in cave environment: The case of las cuevas, belize acquisition of the cave system and excavation area," Proc. 2013 Digital Heritage International Congress (Digital Heritage), Marseille, France, Oct. 28-Nov. 1, 2013.

    8. Bedford, M. D., A. Hrovat, G. Kennedy, T. Javornik, and P. Foster, "Modeling microwave propagation in natural caves using LiDAR and ray tracing," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 68, No. 5, 3878-3888, 2020.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2019.2957969

    9., "Tin Mine Cavern Gua Tempurung,", accessed on Jun. 3, 2022, [Online], Available: Ipoh City Attration --- Kek Lok Tong (ipoh-city.com).
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2019.2957969

    10. Branch, P., "Propagation measurements and models of 915 MHz LoRa radio in a block cave gold mine," Proc. 2021 Int. Conf. on Information Networking, 333-338, Jeju Island, Korea (South), Jan. 2021.

    11., "Tham Luang Cave Rescue,", accessed on Jun. 3, 2022, [Online], Available: Tham Luang cave rescue --- Wikipedia.

    12. Rappaport, T. S., Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2002.