Vol. 112

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Dipole Antenna with 18×5 Square Electromagnetic Band Gap for Applications Used in Monitoring Children Trapped in Cars

By Watcharaphon Naktong and Natchayathorn Wattikornsirikul
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 112, 163-176, 2022


This article presents the design of the dipole antenna structure in combination with a square electromagnetic band gap (EBG), to detect child trapped in carsuse the 750 MHz frequency range, which responds to the most human movement detection. The antenna structure has been designed on a copper plate with a thickness of 0.297 mm and polyester mylar film. The baseplate has a thickness of 0.3 mm, dielectric value 3.2. By design, the dipole antenna is the size as 201.56x12.5 mm2 and a 18x5 units square Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) is the size as 254.64x71.86 mm2. The results of the measurement showed that the bandwidth impedance in the operating frequency range was 4.78% (735-771 MHz) with a gain of 6.33 dBi, and has an omnidirectional signal. The dipole antenna has the best distance between the EBG plates 30 mm. When being examined at a distance of 500-1,600 mm, it is the most effective at an average signal strength of approximately 0.032 mW in every time there is movement of the human in the car.


Watcharaphon Naktong and Natchayathorn Wattikornsirikul, "Dipole Antenna with 18×5 Square Electromagnetic Band Gap for Applications Used in Monitoring Children Trapped in Cars," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 112, 163-176, 2022.


    1. Glenn, E., T. L. Glenn, and M. L. Neurauter, Pediatric Vehicular Heatstroke: Review of Literature and Preventative Technologies, 2019.

    2. Ahmad, M. B., A. A. Abdullahi, A. S. Muhammad, Y. B. Saleh, and U. B. Usman, "The various types of sensors used in the security alarm system," International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA), Vol. 9, No. 2, 50-59, 2019.

    3. Razuin, R., M. N. Julina, F. S. Nurquin, and A. H. Amirul, "Heatstroke due to vehicular entrapment: An autopsy case report," Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2020.

    4. Hammett, D. L., T. M. Kennedy, S. M. Selbst, A. Rollins, and J. E. Fennell, "Pediatric heatstroke fatalities caused by being left in motor vehicles," Pediatric Emergency Care, Vol. 37, No. 12, e1560-e1565, 2021.

    5. Juan, C. G., E. Bronchalo, B. Potelon, C. Quendo, and J. M. Sabater-Navarro, "Glucose concentration measurement in human blood plasma solutions with microwave sensors," Sensors, Vol. 19, No. 17, 3779, 2019.

    6. Muñoz-Enano, J., P. Vélez, M. Gil, and F. Martín, "Planar microwave resonant sensors: A review and recent developments," Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 7, 2615, 2020.

    7. Naktong, W., S. Phonsri, W. Srison, S. Prapakarn, N. Prapakarn, and A. Ruengwaree, "I-shape monopole antenna for applying to check kids trapped inside car," Engineering, Science, Technology and Architecture Conference, (ESTACON 12), 307-312, Thailand, 2021.

    8. Kwon, J., H. Park, C. Lee, G. Namgung, Y. Seo, and S. Kahng, "Small EBG decoupling structure for high isolation between two RFID tags," 2019 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation (APCAP), 331-336, IEEE, August 2019.

    9. Kedze, K. E., H. Wang, S. X. Ta, and I. Park, "Wideband low-profile printed dipole antenna incorporated with folded strips and corner-cut parasitic patches above the ground plane," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 15537-15546, 2019.

    10. El Ayachi, M., M. Rahmoun, P. Brachat, and J. M. Ribero, "Realization of planar antenna with wide bandwidth and high gain using novel EBG structure," 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS), 1-6, IEEE, April 2019.

    11. He, R., Z. H. Yan, and Y. B. Meng, "A low-profile dual-polarized crossed dipole antenna on AMC surface," The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 1038-1042, 2019.

    12. Chen, P., L. Wang, and T. Ding, "A broadbiand dual-polarized antenna with CRR-EBG structure for 5G applications," The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 1507-1512, 2020.

    13. Subramanian, S., P. M. Parameswari, and B. Sundarambal, "Design and development of rf energy harvesting loop antenna," 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), 994-997, IEEE, March 2020.

    14. Malhat, H. A. E. A., A. M. Mabrouk, H. El-Hmaily, H. F. Hamed, S. H. Zainud-Deen, and A. A. E. M. Ibrahim, "Electronic beam switching using graphene artificial magnetic conductor surfaces," Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 7, 1-15, 2020.

    15. Tamrakar, M. and U. K. Kommuri, "EBG-AMC-HIS characteristics analysis of QBTR unitcell," Sādhanā, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1-6, 2021.

    16. Kwon, O. H., W. B. Park, J. Yun, H. J. Lim, and K. C. Hwang, "A low-profile HF meandered dipole antenna with a ferrite-loaded artificial magnetic conductor," Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2237, 2021.

    17. Liu, Z. G., R. J. Yin, Z. N. Ying, W. B. Lu, and K. C. Tseng, "Dual-band and shared-aperture Fabry-Perot cavity antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1686-1690, 2021.

    18. Malekpoor, H. and M. Hamidkhani, "Performance enhancement of low-profile wideband multi-element MIMO arrays backed by AMC surface for vehicular wireless communications," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 166206-166222, 2021.

    19. Malekpoor, H. and A. Abolmasoumi, "Gain and isolation improvement of compact MIMO printed dipole arrays realized by second iteration Giuseppe Peano AMC for 4G/5G wireless networks," Wireless Networks, 1-14, 2022.

    20. Jiang, C., S. Wang, T. Wei, Q. Yang, J. Li, and E. Chen, "Dual-band circularly polarized crossed-dipole antenna backed by a double layer artificial magnetic conductor," 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electronic Information and Communication Technology (ICEICT), 217-220, IEEE, November 2020.

    21. Jiang, Z., Z. Wang, L. Y. Nie, X. Zhao, and S. Huang, "A low-profile ultra-wideband slotted dipole antenna based on artificial magnetic conductor," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 21, No. 4, 6710-675, 2022.

    22. Xiong, H. Q., C. J. Zhang, and M. S. Tong, "Wideband low-profile dual-polarized antenna based on a gain enhanced EBG reflector," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 391-394, 2021.

    23. Ashyap, A. Y., Z. Z. Abidin, S. H. Dahlan, H. A. Majid, M. R. Kamarudin, A. Alomainy, and J. M. Noras, "Highly efficient wearable CPW antenna enabled by EBG-FSS structure for medical body area network applications," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 77529-77541, 2018.

    24. Yalduz, H., B. Koç, L. Kuzu, and M. Turkmen, "An ultra-wide band low-SAR flexible metasurface-enabled antenna for WBAN applications," Applied Physics A, Vol. 125, No. 9, 1-11, 2019.

    25. Amalraj, T. D. and R. Savarimuthu, "Design and analysis of microstrip patch antenna using periodic EBG structure for C-band applications," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 109, No. 3, 2077-2094, 2019.

    26. Jun, S., B. Sanz-Izquierdo, and E. A. Parker, "A novel reconfigurable EBG structure and its potential use as liquid sensor," 2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-5, IEEE, March 2019.

    27. Bora, P., P. Pardhasaradhi, and B. T. P. Madhav, "Design and analysis of EBG antenna for Wi-Fi, LTE, and WLAN applications," The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 1030-1036, 2020.

    28. Zhang, K., G. A. Vandenbosch, and S. Yan, "A novel design approach for compact wearable antennas based on metasurfaces," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol. 14, No. 4, 918-927, 2020.

    29. Dogan, G. T. and E. Tetik, "Metamaterial based flexible coplanar antenna design and simulation for human body applications," Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2541-2550, 2020.

    30. El May, W., I. Sfar, J. M. Ribero, and L. Osman, "Design of low-profile and safe low SAR tri-band textile EBG-based antenna for IoT applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 98, 85-94, 2021.

    31. Patil, S., A. Verma, A. K. Singh, B. K. Kanaujia, and S. Kumar, "A low-profile circularly polarized microstrip antenna using elliptical electromagnetic band gap structure," International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 1-10, 2021.

    32. Ramanpreet, N., M. Rattan, and S. S. Gill, "Compact and low profile planar antenna with novel metastructure for wearable MBAN devices," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 118, No. 4, 3335-3347, 2021.

    33. Arif, A., M. R. Akram, K. Riaz, M. Zubair, and M. Q. Mehmood, "Koch fractal based wearable antenna backed with EBG plane," 2020 17th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 642-646, IEEE, January 2020.

    34. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory and Design, John Willey & Sons, NY, USA, 1997.

    35. Fhafhiem, N., P. Krachodnok, and R. Wongsan, "Curved strip dipole antenna on EBG reflector plane for RFID applications," WSEAS Transactions on Communications, Vol. 9, No. 6, 374-383, 2010.

    36. Naktong, W., A. Ruengwaree, N. Fhafhiem, and P. Krachodnok, "Resonator rectenna design based on metamaterials for low-RF energy harvesting," CMC-Computers Materials & Continua, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1731-1750, 2021.

    37. Malekpoor, H. and M. Hamidkhani, "Performance enhancement of low-profile wideband multi-element MIMO arrays backed by AMC surface for vehicular wireless communications," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 166206-166222, 2021.