Arc synthetic aperture radar (ArcSAR) forms the synthetic aperture through uniform circular motion with antenna pointed outwards circular trajectory, so the point target response is different from traditional linear SAR and Circular SAR (CSAR). Due to the unique imaging mode, ArcSAR has the characteristics of large field of view and constant azimuth angular resolution. The ArcSAR system is built by vector network analyzer (VNA), rotating platform, standard gain horn antenna, and computer, and the system transmits stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW). A Qt-based GUI is designed to realize the accurate and convenient remote control of the system. An outdoor imaging experiment was carried out with a corner reflector to investigate the point target response of SFCW-ArcSAR which has unique forms in Cartesian coordinate and cylindrical coordinate systems. In order to avoid the additional phase error introduced by coordinate transformation based on interpolation, back projection (BP) algorithm is applied in Cartesian coordinate system and cylindrical coordinate system, respectively. The point target response presents a 2-D sinc function in cylindrical coordinate system. The azimuth angular resolution is 0.0175 rad under the experimental condition of 1.9 m-rotating radius and 16˚ antenna beamwidth. The simulation results agree with measured ones, which prove the validity of SFCW-ArcSAR system and correctness of theoretical analysis. The imaging result based on BP algorithm and corner reflector can be used to evaluate other ArcSAR imaging algorithms.
2. Pieraccini, M. and L. Miccinesi, "Ground-based radar interferometry: A bibliographic review," Remote Sensing, Vol. 11, No. 9, 1029, 2019.
3. Wang, Y., et al., "Ground-based differential interferometry SAR: A review," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 1, 43-70, 2020.
4. Frodella, W., et al., "A method for assessing and managing landslide residual hazard in urban areas," Landslides, Vol. 15, 183-197, 2018.
5. Pieraccini, M., N. Rojhani, and L. Miccinesi, "Compressive sensing for ground based synthetic aperture radar," Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 12, 1960, 2018.
6. Luzi, G., et al., "Monitoring of an alpine glacier by means of ground-based SAR interferometry," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, 495-499, 2007.
7. Nico, G., G. Prezioso, O. Masci, and Y. Izumi, "Monitoring strategies of displacements and vibration frequencies by ground-based radar interferometry," Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 1246, 374-379, 2019.
8. Calvari, S., et al., "Monitoring crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes: A study of the 12 January 2013 event at Stromboli," Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 78, No. 5, 1-16, 2016.
9. Pieraccini, M. and L. Miccinesi, "An interferometric MIMO radar for bridge monitoring," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 16, No. 9, 1383-1387, Sept. 2019.
10. Tarchi, D., F. Oliveri, and P. F. Sammartino, "MIMO radar and ground-based SAR imaging systems: Equivalent approaches for remote sensing," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience & Remote Sensing, Vol. 51, No. 1, 425-435, 2013.
11. Ponce, O., et al., "Fully polarimetric high-resolution 3-D imaging with circular SAR at L-band," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 6, 3074-3090, Jun. 2014.
12. Jia, G., W. Chang, Q. Zhang, and X. Luan, "The analysis and realization of motion compensation for circular synthetic aperture radar data," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 7, 3060-3071, Jul. 2016.
13. Viviani, F., A. Michelini, L. Mayer, and F. Conni, "IBIS-ArcSAR: An innovative ground-based SAR system for slope monitoring," IGARSS 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1348-1351, 2018.
14. Michelini, A., F. Viviani, and L. Mayer, "Introduction to IBIS-ArcSAR: A circular scanning GB-SAR system for deformation monitoring," Proceedings of the 4th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM), 15-17, Athens, Greece, 2019.
15. Lee, H., J. Lee, K. Kim, N. Sung, and S. Cho, "Development of a truck-mounted Arc-scanning synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 5, 2773-2779, May 2014.
16. Luo, Y., H. Song, R. Wang, Y. Deng, F. Zhao, and Z. Xu, "Arc FMCW SAR and applications in ground monitoring," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 9, 5989-5998, Sept. 2014.
17. Lin, Y., Y. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Ye, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Li, H. Qu, and W. Hong, "Frequency domain panoramic imaging algorithm for ground-based ArcSAR," Sensors, Vol. 20, No. 24, 7027, 2020.
18. Pieraccini, M., G. Luzi, and C. Atzeni, "Terrain mapping by ground-based interferometric radar," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2176-2181, Oct. 2001.
19. Desai, M. D. and W. K. Jenkins, "Convolution backprojection image reconstruction for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 1, No. 4, 505-517, Oct. 1992.
20. Ulander, L. M. H., H. Hellsten, and G. Stenstrom, "Synthetic-aperture radar processing using fast factorized back-projection," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 39, No. 3, 760-776, Jul. 2003.
21. Iker, H. and C. Zdemir, "Adaptation of stepped frequency continuous waveform to range-Doppler algorithm for SAR signal processing," Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 106, No. 4, 102826, 2020.
22. Soumekh, M., Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms, 1999.
23. Hanssen, R., et al., "Evaluation of interpolation kernels for SAR interferometry," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience & Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 1, 318-321, 1999.
24. Pieraccini, M. and L. Miccinesi, "ArcSAR: Theory, simulations, and experimental verification," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 65, No. 1, 293-301, Jan. 2017.
25. Yigit, E., "Short-range ground-based synthetic aperture radar imaging: Performance comparison between frequency-wavenumber migration and back-projection algorithms," Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Vol. 7, No. 1, 073483, 2013.
26. Cumming, I. G. and F. H. Wong, Digital Signal Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Algorithms and Implementation, 2004.