Vol. 107

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

X-Band Multilayer Butler Matrix and SIW Multi-Beam Antenna: Analysis and Design

By Moustapha Mbaye, Larbi Talbi, Siwar Louati, Khelifa Hettak, and Halim Boutayeb
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 107, 79-89, 2022


This article presents a new Butler matrix made on stacked Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The matrix is based on Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) and microstrip lines. Transitions using through metallic vias are designed and optimized for the crossover sections of the matrix. The other components of the circuit are as follows: 3-dB SIW directional coupler, 45° phase-shifter, and SIW dual-slot linear antenna array. Different sections of the matrix were simulated, fabricated, and tested. Using the full structure with radiating elements, we obtained good numerical and experimental results in terms of radiations patterns for the different beam directions, impedance matching, and isolation between the input ports.


Moustapha Mbaye, Larbi Talbi, Siwar Louati, Khelifa Hettak, and Halim Boutayeb, "X-Band Multilayer Butler Matrix and SIW Multi-Beam Antenna: Analysis and Design," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 107, 79-89, 2022.


    1. Hall, P. S. and S. J. Vetterlein, "Review of radio frequency beamforming techniques for scanned and multiple beam antennas," IEE Proc., Vol. 137, No. 5, 293-303, 1990.

    2. El-Zooghby, A., "Potentials of smart antennas in CDMA systems and uplink improvements," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 43, No. 5, 172-177, Oct. 2001.

    3. Egami, S. and M. Kawai, "An adaptive multiple beam system concepts," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 5, No. 4, 630-636, May 1987.

    4. Rotman, W. and R. Turner, "Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 11, No. 6, 623-632, Nov. 1963.

    5. Shelton, J. P., "Focusing characteristics of symmetrically configured bootlace lenses," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 26, No. 4, 513-518, Jul. 1978.

    6. Herd, J. S. and D. M. Pozar, "Design of a microstrip antenna array fed by a Rotman lens," IEEE AP-S International Symposium, Vol. 22, 729-732, Jun. 1984.

    7. Blass, J., "Multi-directional antenna: New approach top stacked beams," IRE Int. Convention Record, 48-50, 1960.

    8. Nolen, J., "Synthesis of multiple-beam networks for arbitrary illuminations,", Ph.D. dissertation, Bendix Corporation, Radio Division, Baltimore, MD, Apr. 1965.

    9. Butler, J. and R. Lowe, "Beam-forming matrix simplifies the design of electrically scanned antennas," Electron Design, 170-173, 1961.

    10. White, W., "Pattern limitations in multiple-beam antennas," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 10, 430-436, Jul. 1962.

    11. Djerafi, T. and K. Wu, "A low-cost wideband 77-GHz planar Butler matrix in SIW technology," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 10, 4949-4954, Oct. 2012.

    12. Cheng, Y. J., C. A. Zhang, and Y. Fan, "Miniaturized multilayer folded substrate integrated waveguide Butler matrix," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 21, 45-58, 2011.

    13. Djerafi, T. and K. Wu, "Multilayered substrate integrated waveguide 4×4 Butler matrix," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput.-Aided Eng., Vol. 22, No. 3, 336-344, Feb. 2012.

    14. Yang, Q., Y. Ban, J. Lian, Z. Yu, and B. Wu, "SIW Butler matrix with modified hybrid coupler for slot antenna array," IEEE Access, Vol. 4, 9561-9569, 2016.

    15. Lian, J., Y. Ban, Y. Wu, and L. Zhong, "Miniaturized multibeam array antenna based on E-plane Butler matrix for 5G application," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 1031-1032, 2018.

    16. Mbaye, M., L. Talbi, K. Hettak, and A. Kabiri, "Design of 15 dB directional coupler using substrate integrated waveguide technology," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 54, 970-973, Apr. 2012.

    17. Sellal, K., L. Talbi, T. A. Denidni, and J. Lebel, "Design and implementation of a substrate integrated waveguide phase shifter," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 2, No. 2, 194-199, Mar. 2008.