In this paper, a potential-based partial-differential formulation, called the all-frequency stable formulation, is presented for the accurate and robust simulation of electromagnetic problems at all frequencies. Due to its stability from (near) dc to microwave frequencies, this formulation can be applied to simulate wide-band and multiscale problems without encountering the infamous low-frequency breakdown issue or applying basis function decompositions such as the tree-cotree splitting technique. To provide both efficient and flexible numerical solutions to the electromagnetic formulation, a mixed continuous-discontinuous Galerkin (CDG) method is proposed and implemented. In regions with homogeneous media, the continuous Galerkin method is employed to avoid the introduction of duplicated degrees of freedom (DoFs) on the elemental interfaces, while on the interfaces of two different media, the discontinuous Galerkin method is applied to permit the jump of the normal components of the electromagnetic fields. Numerical examples are provided to validate and demonstrate the proposed numerical solver for problems in a wide electromagnetic spectrum.
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