Metasheets are ultra-thin sheets built from sub-wavelength resonators designed to achieve certain frequency-dependent transmission behavior. A semianalytical approach based on an equivalent circuit representation is proposed to calculate the microwave transmission through metasheets consisting of two-dimensional periodic arrays of planar circular metal rings on a dielectric substrate. In the semianalytical approach, the impedances of the equivalent circuit are parameterized and fitted to match the values of transmission coefficients obtained by full-wave simulations at selected frequency points. As dimensional parameters, the outer radius and the width of the ring are considered. A metalens with four concentric zones is designed by using this semianalytical approach to correct the phase distortions due to a polypropylene hemispheric radome at frequencies around 28 GHz in the Ka band. It is shown that the designed metalens works well for 27 GHz, 28 GHz, 29 GHz and 29.5 GHz, implying the bandwidth of approximately 2.5 GHz. The field transmitted through the metalens and the radome is calculated by Physical Optics (PO). The electrically large integration area is divided into small square facets to calculate the PO integral. The calculated and measured results are shown to agree well.
2. Gorgucci, E., R. Bechini, L. Baldini, R. Cremonini, and V. Chandrasekar, "The influence of antenna radome on weather radar calibration and its real-time assessment," Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 30, No. 4, 676-689, 2013.
3. Asadchy, V. S., I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra'di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Broadband reflectionless metasheets: Frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption," Phys. Rev. X, Vol. 5, No. 3, 031005, 2015, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031005.
4. Werner, D. H., Broadband Metamaterials in Electromagnetics: Technology and Applications, Chapter 1, Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2017.
5. Culhaoglu, E. A., V. A. Osipov, and P. Russer, "Imaging by a double negative metamaterial slab excited with an arbitrarily oriented dipole," Radio Science, Vol. 49, 68-79, 2014.
6. She, A., S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, "Large area metalenses: Design, characterization, and mass manufacturing," Opt. Express, Vol. 26, 1573-1585, 2018.
7. Khorasaninejad, M., T. W. Chen, C. R. Devlin, J. Oh, Y. A. Zhu, and F. Capasso, "Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging," Science, Vol. 352, No. 6290, 1190-1194, 2016.
8. Zhang, K., Y. Yuan, and Q. Wu, "Metalens in microwave region for the generation of orbital angular momentum," IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/APEMC), 129, 2018.
9. Wang, L., W. Hong, L. Deng, S. Li, S. Uddin, H. Tian, and D. Chen, "Flexible broadband achromatic microwave metalens design using polynomial fitting method," Proceedings of Asia Microwave Conference (APMC), 1384-1386, 2018.
10. Azad, K. A., V. A. Efimov, S. Ghosh, J. Singleton, J. A. Taylor, and H. Chen, "Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 110, No. 22, 1-5, 2017.
11. Zhang, Y., et al., "Moving train imaging by ground-based Ka-band radar," Loughborough Antenna and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 413-416, Loughborough, UK, Nov. 16-18, 2009.
12. Zhang, X., W. Zhai, and Y. Zhang, "A prototype for stepped-frequency SAR dechirp imaging system and experimental verification," 2009 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), Singapore, Dec. 7-10, 2009.
13. Zhang, X. and Y. Zhang, "High-resolution imaging of a moving train by ground-based radar with compressive sensing," Electronic Letters, Vol. 46, No. 7, 529-531, Apr. 2010.
14. Winston, R., J. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics, Academic Press, 2004.
15. Pourahmadazar, J. and T. Denidni, "Towards milimeter-wavelength: Transmission-mode fresnel-zone plate lens antennas using plastic material porosity control in homogeneous medium," Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, No. 5300, 1-14, 2018.
16. Öziş, E., A. V. Osipov, and T. F. Eibert, "A semi-analytical approach for fast design of microwave metasheets with circular metal rings on dielectric substrates," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 88, 13-25, 2018.
17. Glassner, S. A., An Introduction to Ray Tracing, Academic Press, USA, 1989.
18. Balanis, A. C., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley, Hoboken, 2012.
19. Durgun, C. A. and M. Kuzuoğlu, "Computation of physical optics integral by Levin's integration algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 6, 59-74, 2009.
20. Ludwig, A. C., "Computation of radiation patterns involving numerical double integration," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 16, No. 6, 767-769, 1968.
21. Dos Santos, M. L. X. and R. N. Rabelo, "On the Ludwig integration algorithm for triangular subregions," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 74, No. 10, 1455-1456, 1986.
22. Youssef, N. N., "Radar cross section of complex targets," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 77, 722-734, 1989.
23. Öziş, E., V. A. Osipov, and F. T. Eibert, "Physical optics and full-wave simulations of transmission of electromagnetic fields through electrically large planar metasheets," Advances in Radio Science, Vol. 15, 29-35, 2017.
24. Osipov, A. V. and S. A. Tretyakov, Modern Electromagnetic Scattering Theory with Applications, Wiley, United Kingdom, 2017.
25. Crabtree, D. G., "A numerical quadrature technique for physical optics scattering analysis," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 27, No. 5, 4291-4294, 1991.
26. Carluccio, G. and M. Albani, "Efficient adaptive numerical integration algorithms for the evaluation of surface radiation integrals in the high-frequency regime," Radio Science, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1-8, 2011.