Vol. 58

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Tuning of Microwave Absorption Properties and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness of Nanosize Conducting Black-Silicone Rubber Composites Over 8-18 GHz

By Raj Kumar Jani, Manoj Kumar Patra, Lokesh Saini, Anuj Shukla, Chandra Pal Singh, and Sampat Raj Vadera
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 58, 193-204, 2017


In this paper, studies on broadband microwave absorption and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness are reported in flexible rubber composites with low filler content of nanosize conducting carbon over 8-18 GHz frequency range of electromagnetic spectrum. Rubber based composites are prepared by loading of 1-15 wt% nanosize conducting Carbon Black (CB) in silicone rubber matrix. Effect of percentage loading of nanosize CB on DC conductivity, dielectric & microwave absorption properties and electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness (SE) of silicone rubber composites is studied. The percolation threshold is achieved at low concentration (3 wt%) of CB in composites. The observed complex permittivity values revealed that composites with concentration of 5 wt% CB can provide more than 90% microwave absorption (Reflection Loss > -10 dB) over 8-18 GHz at composite thickness of 1.9-2.7 mm. Further, composites with concentration of 15 wt% of CB shows -40 dB SE over the broad frequency range 8-18 GHz at thickness 2.8 mm. The effect of composite thickness on microwave absorption properties and shielding effectiveness is also analyzed. Thus, the prepared rubber composites with suitable concentration of nanosize CB as filler may be used as microwave absorber in stealth applications as well as for EMI shielding of electronic equipments in various civilian and military areas.


Raj Kumar Jani, Manoj Kumar Patra, Lokesh Saini, Anuj Shukla, Chandra Pal Singh, and Sampat Raj Vadera, "Tuning of Microwave Absorption Properties and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness of Nanosize Conducting Black-Silicone Rubber Composites Over 8-18 GHz ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 58, 193-204, 2017.


    1. Knott, E. F., J. F. Shaeffer, and M. T. Tully, Radar Cross Section, Artech House Inc., Norwood, 1993.

    2. Vinoy, K. J. and R. M. Jha, Radar Absorbing Materials: From Theory to Design and Characterization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1996.

    3. Qin, F. and C. Brosseau, "A review and analysis of microwave absorption in polymer composites filled with carbonaceous particles," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, 061301-24, 2012.

    4. Singh, V. K., A. Shukla, M. K. Patra, L. Saini, R. K. Jani, S. R. Vadera, and N. Kumar, "Microwave absorbing properties of thermally reduced graphene oxide/nitrile butadiene rubber composite," Carbon, Vol. 50, 2202-2208, 2012.

    5. Bhattacharya, P., S. Sahoo, and C. K. Das, "Microwave absorption behavior of MWCNT based nanocomposites in X-band region," Express Polymer Letters, Vol. 7212-223, 2013.

    6. Zhang, W., Y. Xu, L. Yuan, J. Cai, and D. Zhang, "Microwave absorption and shielding property of composites with FeSiAl and carbonaceous materials as filler," Journal of Material Science and Technology, Vol. 28, 913-919, 2012.

    7. Xu, Y., D. Zhang, J. Cai, L. Yuan, and W. Zhang, "Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the electromagnetic absorbing characteristics of composites filled with Carbonyl Iron Particles," Journal of Material Science and Technology, Vol. 28, 34-40, 2012.

    8. Joseph, N., C. Janardhanan, and M. T. Sebastian, "Electromagnetic interference shielding properties of butyl rubber-single walled carbon nanotube composites," Composite Science and Technology, Vol. 101, 139-144, 2014.

    9. Savi, P., M. Miscuglio, M. Giorcelli, and A. Tagliaferro, "Analysis of microwave absorbing properties of epoxy MWCNT composites," Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, Vol. 44, 63-69, 2014.

    10. Saib, A., L. Bednarz, R. Daussin, C. Bailly, X. Lou, J.M. Thomassin, C. Pagnoulle, C. Detrembleur, R. Jerome, and I. Huynen, "Carbon nanotube composites for broadband microwave absorbing materials," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, 2745-2754, 2006.

    11. Al-Hartomy, O. A., A. Al-Ghamdi, N. Dishovsky, R. Shtarkova, V. Iliev, I. Mutlay, and F. El-Tantawy, "Dielectric and microwave properties of natural rubber based nanocomposites containing grapheme," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 3, 453-459, 2012.

    12. Liu, X., Z. Zhang, and Y. Wu, "Absorption properties of carbon black/silicon carbide microwave absorbers," Composites: Part B, Vol. 42, 326-329, 2011.

    13. Wang, M., Y. Duan, S. Liu, X. Li, and Z. Ji, "Absorption properties of carbonyl-iron/carbon black double-layer microwave absorber," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 321, 3442-3446, 2009.

    14. Vinayasree, S., M. A. Soloman, V. Sunny, P. Mohanan, P. Kurian, P. A. Joy, and M. R. Anantharaman, "Flexible microwave absorbers based on barium hexaferrite, carbon black, and nitrile rubber for 2-12 GHz applications," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, 24902-24907, 2014.

    15. Wang, X., "Investigation of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of nano-structural carbon black-ABS composites," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3, 160-164, 2011.

    16. Dinesh, P. G., N. M. Renukappa, T. Pasang, M. Dinesh, and C. Rangananthaiah, "Effect of nanofillers on conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of high density polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites," European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, 16-28, 2014.

    17. Das, N. C., D. Khastgir, T. C. Chaki, and A. Chakraborty, "Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of carbon black and carbon fiber filled EVA and NR based composites," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 31, 1069-1081, 2001.

    18. Li, L. and D. D. L. Chung, "Electrical and mechanical properties of electrically conductive polyethersulfone composite," Composites, Vol. 25, 215-224, 1994.

    19. Chung, D. D. L., "Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of carbon materials," Carbon, Vol. 39, 279-285, 2001.

    20. Shui, X. and D. D. L. Chung, "Nickel filament polymer-matrix composites with low surface impedance and high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness," Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 26, 928-934, 1997.

    21. Nicolson, A. M. and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques," IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurements, Vol. 19, 377, 1970.

    22. Janzen, J., "On the critical conductive filler loading in antistatic composites," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 46, 966-969, 1975.

    23. Donnet, J. B., R. C. Bansal, and M. J. Wang, Carbon Black, 2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1993.

    24. Stauffer, D. and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory, 2nd Ed., Taylor & Francis, London, 1994.

    25. Li, H., X. Qian, T. Li, and Y. Ni, "Percolation for coated conductive paper: electrical conductivity as a function of volume fraction of graphite and carbon black," BioResources, Vol. 10, 4877-4885, 2015.

    26. Foulger, S. H., "Reduced percolation threshold of immiscible conductive blends," Journal of Polymer Science Part: B Polymer Physics, Vol. 37, 1899-1910, 1999.

    27. Belberg, I., "Tunneling and non-universal conductivity in composite materials," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 59, 1305, 1987.

    28. Wessling, B., "Electrical conductivity in heterogeneous polymer systems V(1): Further experimental evidence for a phase transition at the critical volume concentration," Polymer Engineering Science, Vol. 31, 1200-6, 1991.

    29. Achour, M. E., M. Malhi, J. L. Miane, F. Carmona, and F. Lahjomri, "Microwave properties of carbon black-epoxy resin composites and their simulation by means of mixture laws," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 73, 969, 1999.

    30. Kim, S. S., S. B. Jo, H. I. Gueon, K. K. Choi, J. M. Kim, and K. S. Churn, "Complex permeability and permittivity and microwave absorption of ferrite-rubber composite in X-band frequencies," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. 27, 5462, 1991.

    31. Paul, C. R., Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005.

    32. Saini, P., V. Choudhary, B. P. Singh, R. B. Mathur, and S. K. Dhawan, "Enhanced microwave absorption behavior of polyaniline-CNT/polystyrene blend in 12.4-18 GHz range," Synthetic Metals, Vol. 161, 1522-1526, 2011.

    33. Pande, S., B. P. Singh, R. B. Mathur, T. L. Dhami, P. Saini, and S. K. Dhawan, "Improved electromagnetic interference shielding properties of MWCNT-PMMA composite using layered structure," Nanoscale Research Letters, Vol. 4, 327-334, 2009.