Vol. 40

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Profiling Boundary Layer Temperature Using Microwave Radiometer in East Coast of China

By Ning Wang, Zhenwei Zhao, Leke Lin, Qing-Lin Zhu, Hong-Guang Wang, and Tingting Shu
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 19-26, 2014


The boundary layer temperature profile is very essential for modeling atmospheric processes, whose information can be obtained using radiosonde data generally. Beside this, ground-based multi-channel microwave radiometer (GMR) offers a new opportunity to automate atmospheric observations by providing temperature, humidity and liquid water content with high time resolution, such as MP-3000A ground-based multi-channel radiometer. An experiment in east coast of China for profiling boundary layer temperature was performed at Qingdao Meteorological Station from 1 March to 23 April in 2014 using an MP-3000A radiometer. Three techniques have been applied to retrieve the boundary layer temperature profile by using the experimental data, namely the linear regression method, the back propagation (BP) neural network method and the 1-D Variational (1D-VAR) method. Elevation scanning is introduced to help improve the accuracy and resolution of the retrievals for each technique. These results are compared with the radiosonde data at the same time. The preliminary results achieved by each method show that the average day root-mean-square (rms) error for temperature is within 1.0 K up to 2 km in height. The 1D-VAR technique seems to be the most effective one to improve the precision of the boundary layer temperature profile.


Ning Wang, Zhenwei Zhao, Leke Lin, Qing-Lin Zhu, Hong-Guang Wang, and Tingting Shu, "Profiling Boundary Layer Temperature Using Microwave Radiometer in East Coast of China," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 19-26, 2014.


    1. Cimini, D., et al., "Thermodynamic atmospheric profiling during the 2010 Winter Olympics using ground-based microwave radiometry," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., Vol. 49, No. 12, 4959-4969, 2011, Doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2154337.

    2. Lohnert, U. and O. Maier, "Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: Prospects and challenges," Atmos. Meas. Tech., Vol. 5, 1121-1134, 2012, Doi: 10.5194/amt-5-1121-2012.

    3. Westwater, E. R., "Ground-based microwave remote sensing of meteorological variables," Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry, M. Janssen (ed.), 145-213, Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993.

    4. Cimini, D., et al., "Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC," Meteorlogische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15, No. 1, 45-56, 2006.

    5. Westwater, E. R., "Ground-based dctcrmination of low altitude temperature profiles by microwaves," Mon. Weather Rev., Vol. 100, No. 1, 15-28, 1972.

    6. Churnside, J. H., T. A. Stermitz, and J. A. Schroeder, "Temperature profiling with neural network inversion of microwave radiometer data," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., Vol. 11, No. 1, 105-109, 1994.

    7. Cimini, D., J. A. Shaw, Y. Han, E. R. Westwater, V. Irisov, V. Leuski, and J. H. Churnside, "Air temperature profile and air-sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave scanning radiometers," Radio Sci., Vol. 38, No. 3, 8045, 2003.

    8. Hewison, T. J., "Profiling temperature and humidity by ground-based microwave radiometers,", A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 2006.

    9. Ludi, A., L. Martin, and C. Matzler, "The retrieval of temperature profiles with the ground based radiometer system ASMUWARA,", 2003.

    10. Hewison, T. J. and C. Gaffard, "Combining data from ground-based microwave radiometers and other instruments in temperature and humidity profile retrievals," TECO 2006, 1-14, 2006.

    11. Vandenverghe, F. and R. Ware, "4-dimensional variational assimilation of ground-based microwave observations during a winter fog event," International Symposium on Atmospheric Sensing with GPS, 2002.

    12. Crewell, S. and U. Lohnert, "Accuracy of boundary layer temperature profiles retrieved with multifrequency multiangle microwave radiometry," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 7, 2195-2202, 2007.

    13. Cimini, D., et al., "Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC," Meteorlogische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15, No. 5, 45-56, 2006.

    14. Solheim, F., et al., "Radiometric profiling of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid water using various inversion methods," Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 2, 393-404, 1998.

    15. ITU-R P676-9, "Attenuation by atmospheric gased,", 2012.

    16. Rodgers, C. D., "Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation," Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., Vol. 14, 609-624, 1976.

    17. Solheim, F., J. Godwin, and R. Ware, "Microwave radiometer for passively and remotely measuring atmospheric temperature, water vapour, and cloud liquid water profiles,", Final Contract Report DAAL01-96-2009, White Sands Missile Range, Available from http://radiometrics.com/eigenvalue.pdf, 1996.

    18. Lohnert, U., S. Crewell, and C. Simmer, "An integrated approach toward retrieving physically consistent profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water," J. Appl. Meteor., Vol. 43, 1295-1307, 2004.

    19. Rodgers, C. D., Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000.

    20. Levenberg, K., "A method for the solution of certain nonlinear problems in least squares," Quart. Appl. Math., Vol. 2, 164, 1944.

    21. Marquardt, D. W., "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. Appl. Math., Vol. 11, 164, 1963.

    22. Chan, P. W. and C. M. Li, "Application of a ground-based microwave radiometer in cloud observations," The 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment, Washington, DC, USA, Mar. 1-4, 2010.

    23. Chan, P. W., K. C. Wu, and C. M. Shun, "Application of a ground-based microwave radiometer in aviation weather forecasting," 13th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary Layer Remote Sensing, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Jul. 18-20, 2006.

    24. Li, J., L.-X. Guo, L.-K. Lin, Y. Zhao, Z. Zhao, T. Shu, and H. Han, "A dual-frequency method of eliminating liquid water radiation to remotely sense cloudy atmosphere by ground-based microwave radiometer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 629-645, 2013.

    25. Cimini, D., et al., "Mixing layer height retrievals by multichannel microwave radiometer observations," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4971-4998, 2013.

    26. Westwater, E. R. and M. T. Decker, "Application of statistical inversion to ground-based microwave remote sensing of temperature and water vapor profiles," Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Decker (ed.), 395-428, Academic Press, New York, 1977.

    27. Basili, P., P. Ciotti, and D. Solimini, "Inversion of ground-based radiometric data by Kalman filtering," Radio Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, 83-91, 1980.

    28. Westwater, E. R., Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, and V. Y. Leuskiy, "Sea-air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer: Recent results," Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 2, 291-302, Mar.-Apr. 1998.

    29. Ware, R. and R. Carpenter, "A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid," Radio Science, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2003.