Spherical shells are proposed and presented to improve the gain of a class of wideband phased array systems. This kind of phased arrays is composed of compact elements, which allow for a small distance between elements that is much less than half wavelength at lower operating frequencies. This small distance, as a function of wavelength, results in a small gain. Therefore, shells confronting the array are proposed to improve the gain. The formulations required to define the geometry and material properties of the shell are developed. Two and four element arrays are designed and simulated with and without shells to test the technique, and promising results are obtained at lower frequencies for the array with shells.
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