Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) consist of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are buried completely under dense soil, thus electromagnetic wave transmits only through soil medium. However, the high attenuation that caused by soil is the main challenge for the electromagnetic wave transmission for WUSN. In this study, architecture of wireless underground sensor network communication was established. The experimental measurements were conducted using WUSN sensor nodes at three different carrier frequencies, respectively. Received signal strength and packet error rate were examined for communication links between the sensor nodes. The test results showed that carrier frequency was one of the main factors that affected electromagnetic wave propagation in the soil medium. It was concluded that the burial depth of the sensor nodes, horizontal inter-node distance, and soil volumetric water content have significant impacts on the signal strength and packet error rate during the electromagnetic wave propagation within a WUSN.
2. Erich, P., D, Stuntebeck, and T. M. Pompili, "Wireless underground sensor networks using commodity terrestrial motes," IEEE Xplore. Restrictions Apply., 112-114, 2006.
3. Lopez, J. A., et al., "Wireless sensor networks for precision horticulture in Southern Spain," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 68, No. 3, 25-35, 2009.
4. Li, L. , H. X. Li, and H. Liu, "Greenhouse environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor network," Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, Vol. 9, No. 40, 228-231, 2009.
5. Cai, Y. H., et al., "Design and test of nodes for farmland data acquisition based on wireless sensor network," Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 4, 176-178, 2009.
6. Zhang, R. B., et al., "Realization of communication in wireless monitoring system in greenhouse based on IEEE802.15.4," Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, Vol. 39, No. 8, 119-122, 2008.
7. Zakaria, A. and Y. Yang, "Signal propagation in aquaculture environment for wireless sensor network applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 131, 477-494, 2012.
8. Berman, E., G. Calinescu, C. Shah, and A. Zelikovsky, "Power efficient monitoring management in sensor networks," Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference, Ailanta, USA, 2004.
9. Akyildiz, I. F. and E. P. Stuntebeck, "Wireless underground sensor networks: Research challenges," Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 4, No. 6, 669-686, 2006.
10. Li, L., C. Mehmet, and I. F. Akyildizy, "Characteristics of underground channel for wireless underground sensor networks," The Sixth Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop, June 12-15, 2007.
11. Akyildiz, I. F., W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless sensor networks: A survey," Computer Networks, Vol. 38, No. 4, 393-422, 2002.
12. Vuran, M. C. and I. F. Akyildiz, "Channel model and analysis for wireless underground sensor networks in soil medium," Physical Communication, Vol. 3, No. 4, 245-254, 2010.
13. Sun, Z. and I. F. Akyildiz, "Channel modeling of wireless networks in tunnels in proc," IEEE Globecom, New Orleans, USA, November 2008.
14. Harun, A., D. L. Ndzi, M. F. Ramli, A. Y. M. Shakaff, M. N. Ahmad, L. M. Kamarudin, D. L. Ndzi, L. M. Kamarudin, A. A. Muhammad Ezanuddin, A. Zakaria, R. B. Ahmad, M. F. B. A. Malek, A. Y. M. Shakaff, and M. N. Jafaar, "Vegetation attenuation measurements and modeling in plantations for wireless sensor network planning," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 36, 283-301, 2012.
15. Li, L. and X. M. Wen, "Energy efficient optimization of clustering algorithm in wireless sensor network," Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, Vol. 30, No. 4, 966-969, 2008.
16. Coen, J. R., et al., "A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents," Water Resources Research, Vol. 45, No. 36, 36-44, 2009.
17. Silva, A. R. and M. C. Vuran, "Communication with above devices in wireless underground sensor networks: A empirical study," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 23-27, 2010.
18. Sheth, A., et al., "Senslide: A sensor network based landslide prediction system," Proceedings of Sensys --- The 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 280-281, 2005.
19. Martinez, K. , R. Ong, and J. Hart, "Glacsweb: A sensor network for hostile environments," IEEESECON, Vol. 1, 81-87, 2004.
20. Allen, G. W., et al., "Deploying a wireless sensor network on an active volcano," IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 10, No. 2, 18-25, 2006.
21. Li, Y. H. and J. X. Qi, "Design of detecting system for powder particle size," Instrument Technique and Sensor, Vol. 8, 98-100, 2011.