Vol. 22

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Numerical Study of the Thermal Effects Induced by a RFID Antenna in Vials of Blood Plasma

By Ruben Otin
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 129-138, 2011


This paper presents a numerical study of the thermal effects induced by a commercial RFID antenna in vials filled with blood plasma. The antenna is located under a conveyor belt which transports cardboard boxes bearing test tubes or pooling bottles. Part of the energy used to read the RFID tags penetrates into the vials and heats the plasma. Our aim is to assess if the RFID technology can alter the quality of the blood plasma by increasing excessively its temperature. To do so, we first compute the specific absorption rate inside the vials with the finite element method. Then, assuming that no heat dissipation process is present, we estimate the number of continuous reading cycles required to increase the plasma temperature 0.1°C in the worst-case scenario. Finally, we compare this number with the number of reading cycles required to obtain all the data from the tags under normal usage conditions.


Ruben Otin, "Numerical Study of the Thermal Effects Induced by a RFID Antenna in Vials of Blood Plasma," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 129-138, 2011.


    1. Arumugam, D. D. and D. W. Engels, "Specific absorption rates in the human head and shoulder for passive UHF RFID systems," Int. J. Radio Frequency Identification Technology and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, 1-26, 2009.

    2. Bassen, H., "Liquid pharmaceuticals and 915MHz radiofrequency identification systems, worst-case heat-ing and induced electric fields," RFID Journal, http://www.rfidjournal.com/whitepapers/7/3, Sep. 2005.

    3. Dobkin, D. M., S. M. Weigand, and N. Iye, "Segmented magnetic antennas for near-field UHF RFID," Micro. J., Vol. 50, No. 6, 2007.

    4. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), "Body tissue dielectric parameters,", http://www.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/dielectric.html, 2010.

    5. Hinhofer-Szalkay, H., "Method of high-precision microsample blood and plasma mass densiometry," J. Appl. Physiol., Vol. 60, No. 3, 1082-1088, 1986.

    6. Jaspard, F., M. Nadi, and A. Rouane, "Dielectric properties of blood: An investigation of haematocrit dependence," Physiol. Meas., Vol. 24, No. 1, 137-147, 2003.

    7. Kashyap, S. C., "Dielectric properties of blood plasma," Electron. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 19, 713-714, 1981.

    8. Otin, R., "Regularized Maxwell equations and nodal finite elements for electromagnetic field computations," Electromagnetics, Vol. 30, No. 1-2, 190-204, 2010.

    9. Qing, X., C. K. Goh, and Z. N. Chen, "Segmented loop antenna for UHF near-field RFID applications," Electron. Lett., Vol. 45, No. 7, 872-873, 2009.

    10. Sanchis, A., J. Espinosa-Garia, and A. Martin, "Numerical simulation of EM environment and human exposure when using RFID devices," PIERS Online, Vol. 6, No. 7, 651-654, 2010.