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Vol. 104

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2022-05-24 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 57-65, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22040204

A Circular Slotted Shaped UWB Monopole Antenna for Breast Cancer Detection

Venkata Lakshmi Narayana Phani Ponnapalli, Shanumugam Karthikeyan, and Jammula Lakshmi Narayana

The design of an innovative breast model system that focuses on a wideband for the detection of malignant tumours is described. The planned antenna has an overall area of 18×28 mm2 and a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 99% across a frequency spectrum of 3.4-10 GHz. The suggested antenna has excellent impedance matching, a considerable gain of 3.95 dBi, maximum efficiency of 96.98%. Omnidirectional radiated patterns are verified in the frequency, and time-domain analysis is also investigated for breast tumor diagnosis. For detecting a breast tumor with accuracy, the suggested antenna S21 parameters are evaluated together, including imaging outcomes of current densities and specific absorption rate (SAR). These findings show that the radiator and the whole system work well at finding the tumor.

2022-05-12 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 47-55, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22031901

Hexagon Shape SIW Bandpass Filter with CSRRs Using Artificial Neural Networks Optimization

Ranjit Kumar Rayala and Singaravelu Raghavan

A dual-band hexagon shape substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) based band pass filter with single loop complementary spilt ring resonators (CSRRs) is introduced in this paper. The design parameters of this filter are optimized by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Especially error back propagation multilayer perceptron (EBP-MLP) neural network with Levenberg-Marquart (LM) algorithm is used. A physical prototype of the proposed model is fabricated and tested. In the lower passband from 10.2 to 10.6 GHz, the insertion loss is about -0.8 dB with a fractional bandwidth of 3.85%, and in the upper passband from 12.11 to 13.31 GHz, the insertion loss is about -0.8 dB with a fractional bandwidth of 9.56%. It is observed that the insertion loss is same in both the passbands. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with the estimated results using full-wave analysis and ANN optimization.

2022-05-11 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 37-46, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22030504

Small Formfactor Phased Array for Simultaneous Spatial and Channel Diversity Communications

Daniel Guidotti, Binbin Yang, Muhammad S. Omar, Shang-Jen Su, Yahya M. Alfadhli, Gee-Kung Chang, and Xiaoli Ma

A high frequency device design and simulation results are reported for an 8 x 8 phased array of unit cells. Each unit cell comprises a (3 x 3) sub-array of 1/4 wave rod monopole radiators. Each unit cell is the basic building block that can be arranged to form 9 interpenetrating arrays. Each interpenetrating array comprises an independently addressable 8 x 8 array of 1/4 wave rod monopole radiators that fits into the lateral space of a single 8 x 8 array of patch radiators but can operate on 9 independent radio frequency channels within the same contiguous communication band without interference and can direct each radio frequency channel into independent directions simultaneously. The beamformer architecture, operation principle, and simulation results are presented and discussed, and an outline of its construction based on 2.5D integration is presented.

2022-05-11 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 27-35, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22032503

Bandpass Filters Based on Hybrid Structure of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) and Hilbert Defected Ground Structure (HDGS)

Mohammed El Amine Chaib, Mehadji Abri, Hadjira Abri Badaoui, and Nabil Cherif

In this article, two compact Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) bandpass filters based on Defected Ground Structure (DGS) technology are proposed. Hilbert Cell of second orderis the resonator shape proposed for the DGS of both filters, where the first filter DGS consists of five pairs, and the second one uses only three pairs. The pair used in the first filter consists of two cells located side to side whereas they are placed face to face in the second filter. In order to enhance the performance of the second filter and based on the evanescent-mode technique, three other pairs of first order Hilbert cells are engraved on the top layer. Both band-pass filters are designed to operate in C band with a measured bandwidth of 1.8 GHz for the first filter and 0.86 GHz for the second one. The proposed structures have the same physical dimensions, which is 38.1 mm×16 mm with different measured insertion losses of -2.5 dB and -2.7 dB. Both structures exhibit an upper stopband rejection with attenuation around -20 dB and -29 dB, respectively. The filters operate in a transmission bandwidth of [5.5 GHz-7.3 GHz] and [5.27 GHz-6.13 GHz] with a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 28.1% and 15.09% for the first filter and the second filter respectively. A good agreement is reported between the measured and simulated results.

2022-05-10 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 15-25, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22032801

Susceptibility of Civilian UAV to Wideband High Power Electromagnetic Pulses

Chaochao Yang, Jin Meng, and Haitao Wang

As unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is widely used in many civilian fields the wideband (WB) high power electromagnetic radiation devices development, whether the WB radiation would influence the civilian UAV to fulfil its tasks needs to be analyzed. Therefore, the radiated susceptibility of three models of DJI UAVs is studied in the paper. A decimetric wave oscillator with the power of over 500 MW was introduced as the radiation source. In experiment, adjusting the distance between radiation antenna and UAVs to change the electric field and the testing antenna was employed to measure the electric field on line. The three models of UAVs can be shot down by the electric field of 10 kV/m, 20 kV/m and 30 kV/m, respectively. Besides, as electric field reached up to over 35 kV/m, the rotor motor, electric control system and inertial measurement unit (IMU) in Mavic Air and Mavic Air 2 were easier to burn down. Except that, the energy accumulation effect has been proved in the experiment. In conclusion, the UAVs should fulfill tasks in the WB electromagnetic environment whose electric field is much less than 10 kV/m, and some shielding methods are needed to make UAV survive.

2022-04-29 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 7-13, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22030501

An Electronically 1-Bit Reconfigurable Beam-Steering Reflectarray Antenna of 12×12 Units Integrated with PIN Diodes

Weixiong Luo, Shixing Yu, Na Kou, Zhao Ding, and Zhengping Zhang

An electronically reconfigurable reflectarray antenna of 12 × 12 units is presented in this paper. The element consists of a slotted square patch and a gapped metal square ring. PIN diodes are loaded on slotted square patches, which can be electronically controlled to produce two states with 180˚ phase difference. A reflectarray prototype is fabricated and experimentally studied. Experimental results agree well with the full-wave simulations by Ansys HFSS, and scanning beams within ±45˚ range are obtained with a maximum aperture efficiency of 14.9% at 5.8 GHz. 1-dB bandwidth is 9.9%, and 3-dB bandwidth is 19.1%.

2022-04-29 PIER Letters Vol. 104, 1-6, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERL22030801

Design of Height-Adjustable Mechanically Reconfigurable Reflectarray

Weixiong Luo, Shixing Yu, Na Kou, Zhao Ding, and Zhengping Zhang

This paper presents a mechanically reconfigurable reflectarray with height adjustment for phase compensation. We designed, fabricated, and measured a prototype of 11×11 elements with microcontrollers to verify the feasibility of the proposed reflectarray. Simulated results show that the phase curve of the unit has good linearity and exhibit broadband characteristics. The maximum phase shift of the unit reaches about 200° at a center frequency of 16 GHz, which meets the requirement of a reflectarray with 1-bit phase quantization. Experimental results show that the gain of the proposed reflectarray is 17.7 dBi, with beam scanning range of ±50°. The proposed configurations can be used for a low-cost beam scanning antenna in wireless communication.