A new formulation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is presented, for nonlinear circuit components provided that their X-Parameter representations are known. Transient electric fields at specified locations within the FDTD simulation are updated based on the frequency domain behavior of a multi-port nonlinear device, using the X-Parameter behavioral model. The formulation is demonstrated through the simulation of a nonlinear common-emitter amplifier embedded in a microstrip circuit with X-Parameters calculated from SPICE simulation results. Agreement may be seen between the X-Parameter-based simulation results and those acquired using a lumped-element method.
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