A multiband circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna including a Minkowski fractal slot for wireless communication applications in the frequency bands 1.39 GHz, 2.45 GHz (WLAN band), 3.48 GHz (Mobile Wi-Max), 5.8 GHz (U-NII high-band) and 6.29 GHz has been proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two substrates mounted on top of the ground plane. The antenna has been fed with a 50 Ω microstripline which is etched on top of the lower substrate. The second iteration Minkowski fractal slot is etched on the truncated square patch which is on top of the upper substrate. The substrate has a size of 80 mm x 82 mm x 1.6 mm. The measured results show that the proposed antenna could excite for five resonant bands of 1.35 GHz, 2.45 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.8 GHz and 6.25 GHz and has reflection coefficients of -15 dB for 1.35 GHz, -16 dB for 2.45 GHz, -22 dB for 3.5 GHz, -23 dB for 5.8 GHz and -13 dB for 6.25 GHz as well as an axial ratio bandwidth of 3.42 GHz-3.47 GHz. The maximum gains of the antenna are 5.92 dBi for 1.39 GHz, 6.15 dBi for 2.45 GHz, 8.36 dBi for 3.48 GHz, 9.64 dBi for 5.8 GHz and 6.69 dBi for 6. 29 GHz. The simulations and optimizations have been carried through Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST-MWS) software.
2. Sim, C. Y. D., "Experimental studies of a shorted triangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with dual V-shaped slots," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 1, 15-24, 2007.
3. Krishna, D. D., M. Gopikrishna, C. Aanandan, P. Mohanan, and K. Vasudevan, "Compact dual band slot loaded circular microstrip antenna with a superstrate," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 245-255, 2008.
4. Das, A., B. Datta, S. Chatterjee, M. Mukherjee, and S. K. Chowdhury, "Dual-band slotted microstrip patch antenna design for application in microwave communication," International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES), 2013.
5. Verma, S., J. A. Ansari, and M. K. Verma, "A novel compact multiband microstrip antenna with multiple narrow slits," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 55, No. 6, June 2013.
6. Awan, W. A., N. Hussain, S. A. Naqvi, A. Iqbal, R. Striker, D. Mitra, and B. D. Braaten, "A miniaturized wideband and multi-band on-demand reconfigurable antenna for compact and portable devices," International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ), Vol. 122, 153266, 2020.
7. Iqbal, A., M. A. Selmi, L. F. Abdulrazak, O. A. Saraereh, N. K. Mallat, and A. Smida, "A compact substrate integrated waveguide cavity-backed self-triplexing antenna," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2020.2966527.
8. Reddy, V. V. and N. V. S. N. Sarma, "Compact circularly polarized asymmetrical fractal boundary microstrip antenna for wireless applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 2014.
9. Chen, W.-S., C.-K. Wu, and K.-L. Wong, "Novel compact circularly polarized square microstrip antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2001.
10. Albooyeh, M., N. Komjani, and M. Shobeyri, "A novel cross-slot geometry to improve impedance bandwidth of microstrip antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 4, 63-72, 2008.
11. Chen, L., X. Ren, Y.-Z. Yin, and Z. Wang, "Broadband CPW-fed circularly polarized antenna with an irregular slot for 2.45 GHz RFID reader," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 41, 77-86, 2013.
12. Yang, L., N.-W. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, G. Fu, Q.-Q. Liu, and S. Zuo, "A novel single feed omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna with wide AR bandwidth," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 51, 35-43, 2014.
13. Bhatia, S. S. and N. Sharma, "A compact wideband antenna using partial ground plane with truncated corners, L-shaped stubs and inverted T-shaped slots," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 97, 133-144, 2020.
14. Yassen, M. T., M. R. Hussan, H. A. Hammas, H. Al-Saedi, and J. K. Ali, "A compact dual-band slot antenna based on Koch fractal Snow ake annular ring," 2017 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium --- Spring (PIERS), 670-674, St Petersburg, Russia, May 22-25, 2017.
15. Ali, J. K. and E. S. Ahmed, "A new fractal based printed slot antenna for dual band wireless communication applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, 1507-1510, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, March 27-30, 2012.
16. Abdul Karim, S. F., A. J. Salim, J. K. Ali, A. I. Hammoodi, M. T. Yassen, and M. R. Hassan, "A compact Peano-type fractal-based printed slot antenna for dual-band wireless applications," 2013 IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference, RFM 2013, Penang, Malaysia, 2013.
17. Mahatthanajatuphat, C., S. Saleekaw, P. Akkaraekthalin, and M. Krairiksh, "A rhombic patch monopole antenna with modified Minkowski fractal geometry for Umts, WLAN, and mobile WiMAX application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 89, 57-74, 2009.
18. Ali, J. K., M. T. Yassen, M. R. Hassan, and A. J. Salim, "A printed fractal-based slot antenna for multi-band wireless communication applications," PIERS Proceedings, 613-617, Moscow, Russia, August 19-23, 2012.
19. Kordzadeh, A. and F. Hojat Kashani, "A new reduced size microstrip patch antenna with fractal shaped defects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 11, 29-37, 2009.
20. Heydari, S., P. Jahangiri, A. S. Arezoomand, and F. B. Zarrabi, "Circular polarization fractal slot by jerusalem cross slot for wireless applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 63, 79-84, 2016.
21. Ali, J. K., Z. A. Abed Al-Hussain, A. A. Osman, and A. J. Salim, "A new compact size fractal based microstrip slot antenna for GPS applications," PIERS Proceedings, 705-708, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, March 27-30, 2012.
22. Mukti, P. H., S. H. Wibowo, and E. Setijad, "A compact wideband fractal-based planar antenna with meandered transmission line for L-band applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 61, 139-147, 2016.
23. Mandelbrot, B. B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 1982.
24. Ataeiseresht, R., Ch. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, "A novel analysis of Minkowski fractal microstrip patch antenna," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1115-1127, 2006.
25. Borja, C. and J. Romeu, "Multiband Sierpinski fractal patch antenna," IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Digest, Vol. 3, 1708-1711, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 2000.