This article discusses the design analysis of a wideband rectenna (Antenna + Rectifier). It empowers low power devices, battery-less power sensors, and many Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The main focus of this work is divided into two parts. First, to develop the power to operate the wideband frequency of operation without system complexity. To obtain rectifier bandwidth sufficiently, L-section impedance matching with dual Schottky diode HSMS270B is proposed. Second, to improve the rectenna efficiency and output DC power. Wideband rectenna harvests the maximum RF power of 30.590 dBm, 1145.51 mW, 10.703 Volts at 3.2 GHz. The harvested power is easily available to power up the low powered sensor such as gas sensor (500-800 mW), pressure sensor (10-15 mW), and temperature sensor (0.5-5 mW). The peak conversion efficiency of the rectenna is 88.58% at 0 dBm, 34.70% at 10 dBm, and 53.52% at 20 dBm under the load resistance of 100 KΩ. The proposed work shows a 20-25% improvement in conversion efficiency with this approach. For efficient RF energy harvesting applications, the proposed rectenna is capable of covering a wideband application from 1.975 to 4.744 GHz with a single radiation patch. This shows that the novel approach of the considered work and the proposed rectenna has the specialty to capture more energy from a wide area at once.
2. Palazzi, V., M. Del Prete, and M. Fantuzzi, "Scavenging for energy: A rectenna design for wireless energy harvesting in UHF mobile telephony bands," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 18, No. 1, 91-99, 2017.
3. Sun, H., Y. Guo, M. He, and Z. Zhong, "Design of a high-efficiency 2.45-GHz rectenna for low-input-power energy harvesting," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 929-932, 2012.
4. Harouni, Z., L. Osman, and A. Gharsallah, "Efficient 2.45GHz rectenna design with high harmonic rejection for wireless power transmission," International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, No. 5, 424-427, Sep. 2010.
5. Marian, V., B. Allard, C. Vollaire, and J. Verdier, "Strategy for microwave energy harvesting from ambient field or a feeding source," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 11, 4481-4491, 2012.
6. Zeng, M., A. S. Andrenko, X. Liu, Z. Li, and H. Tan, "A compact fractal loop rectenna for RF energy harvesting," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2424-2427, 2017.
7. Matsunaga, T., E. Nishiyama, and I. Toyoda, "5.8-GHz stacked differential rectenna suitable for large-scale rectenna arrays with DC connection," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 12, 5944-5949, 2015.
8. Sun, H. and W. Geyi, "A new rectenna with all-polarization-receiving capability for wireless power transmission," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 814-817, 2016.
9. Arrawatia, M., M. S. Baghini, and G. Kumar, "Broadband bent triangular omnidirectional antenna for RF energy harvesting," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 36-39, 2016.
10. He, Y., K. Ma, N. Yan, and H. Zhang, "Dual-band monopole antenna using substrate-integrated suspended line technology for WLAN application," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2776-2779, 2017.
11. Nie, M., X. Yang, G. Tan, and B. Han, "A compact 2.45-GHz broadband rectenna using grounded coplanar waveguide," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 986-989, 2015.
12. Berges, R., L. Fadel, L. Oyhenart, V. Vigneras, and T. Taris, "Conformable dual-band wireless energy harvester dedicated to the urban environment," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 62, No. 11, 3391-3400, 2020.
13. Shen, S., C. Chiu, and R. D. Murch, "A dual-port triple-band L-probe microstrip patch rectenna for ambient rf energy harvesting," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 3071-3074, 2017.
14. Kuhn, V., C. Lahuec, F. Seguin, and C. Person, "A multi-band stacked RF energy harvester with RF-to-DC efficiency up to 84%," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 63, No. 5, 1768-1778, 2015.
15. Song, C., Y. Huang, J. Zhou, P. Carter, S. Yuan, Q. Xu, and Z. Fei, "Matching network elimination in broadband rectennas for high-efficiency wireless power transfer and energy harvesting," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, No. 5, 3950-3961, 2017.
16. Okba, A., A. Takacs, H. Aubert, S. Charlot, and P.-F. Calmon, "Multiband rectenna for microwave applications," Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 18, No. 2, 107-117, 2017.
17. Lu, P., X.-S. Yang, J.-L. Li, and B.-Z. Wang, "A dual-frequency quasi-PIFA rectenna with a robust voltage doubler for 2.45- and 5.8-GHz wireless power transmission," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 57, No. 2, 319-322, 2015.
18. Song, C., Y. Huang, J. Zhou, J. Zhang, S. Yuan, and P. Carter, "A high-efficiency broadband rectenna for ambient wireless energy harvesting," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 8, 3486-3495, 2015.
19. Valenta, C. R. and G. D. Durgin, "Harvesting wireless power: Survey of energy-harvester conversion efficiency in far-field, wireless power transfer systems," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 4, 108-120, 2014.
20. Liu, D.-S., F.-B. Li, X. Zou, Y. Liu, X.-M. Hui, and X.-F. Tao, "New analysis and design of a RF rectifier for RFID and implantable devices," Sensors, Vol. 11, 6494-6508, 2011.
21. Chang, Y., P. Zhang, and L. Wang, "Highly efficient differential rectenna for RF energy harvesting," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 61, No. 12, 2662-2668, 2019.
22. Agrawal, S., M. S. Parihar, and P. N. Kondekar, "Broadband rectenna for radio frequency energy harvesting application," IETE Journal of Research, Vol. 64, No. 3, 347-353, 2018.
23. Song, C., Y. Huang, P. Carter, J. Zhou, S. D. Joseph, and G. Li, "Novel compact and broadband frequency-selectable rectennas for a wide input-power and load impedance range," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 66, No. 7, 3306-3316, 2018.
24. Tsai, C., I. Liao, C. Pakasiri, H. Pan, and Y. Wang, "A wideband 20mW UHF rectifier in CMOS," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 25, No. 6, 388-390, 2015.
25. Helal, E., M. El-Nozahi, S. Ibrahim, and H. F. Ragai, "A 1.65 to 2.5 GHz wide-band RF energy harvester," 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), 1-4, 2018.
26. Xie, K., Y.-M. Liu, H.-L. Zhang, and L.-Z. Fu, "Harvest the ambient AM broadcast radio energy for wireless sensors," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, No. 14–15, 2054-2065, 2011.
27. Pandey, R., A. K. Shankhwar, and A. Singh, "Design, analysis and optimization of dual side printed multiband antenna for RF energy harvesting," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 102, 79-91, 2020.
28. Pandey, R., A. K. Shankhwar, and A. Singh, "Far field analysis of defected ground structured wideband antenna for RF energy harvesting applications," Advances in VLSI, Communication, and Signal Processing, 201-212, David Harvey, Haranath Kar, Shekhar Verma, and Vijaya Bhadauria, editors, Springer Singapore, Singapore, 2021.
29. Saranya, N. and T. Kesavamurthy, "Design and performance analysis of broadband rectenna for an efficient RF energy harvesting application," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 1, e21628, 2019.