This article present a synthesis modelling of isolation in a diamond-shaped fractal electromagnetic band gag (DSFEBG) based two-port multiple input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna using the Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). A compact two-port MIMO antenna with 0.140λ inter-element spacing is considered for isolation improvement. To predict mutual coupling in two-port MIMO antenna supervised learning-based regression technique of GPR, the model is trained with 50 samples and tested on 125 samples. The model performs result prediction in less than 1 second with RMSE less than 0.0001%. For a better understanding of the isolation between elements of the MIMO antenna, the automatic relevance determination property of GPR is presented. The proposed model does faster computation and is efficient in predicting isolation in DSFEBG based antennas for lower and high-frequency bands of 5G communication system.
2. Nimmagadda, S., "Optimal spectral and energy efficiency trade-off for massive MIMO technology: Analysis on modified lion and grey wolf optimization," Soft Computing, Vol. 14, 15523-15539, 2020.
3. Taieb, A., M. Soltani, and A. Chaari, "Parameter optimization of MIMO fuzzy optimal model predictive control by APSO," Hindawi Complexity, Vol. 2017, 11, 2017.
4. Ramya, P., R. S. Valarmathi, and C. Poongodi, "Antenna selection with Improved Group based Particle Swarm Optimization (IGPSO) and joint adaptive beam forming for wideband millimeter wave communication," Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 2020.
5. Hu, C., P. Lo, C. Ho, and D. Chang, "Automatic calibration using a modified genetic algorithm formillimeter-wave antenna modules in MIMO systems," Hindawi International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2020, 9, 2020.
6. Leal, I. A. C., M. S. Alencar, and W. T. A. Lopes, "Genetic algorithm optimization applied to the project of MIMO systems," 2017 25th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 1-5, 2017.
7. Chen, X., S. Zhang, and Q. Li, "A review of mutual coupling in MIMO systems," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 24706-24719, 2018.
8. Malathi, A. C. J. and D. Thiripurasundari, "Review on isolation techniques in MIMO antenna systems," Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 35, 2016.
9. Chouhan, S., D. K. Panda, M. Gupta, and S. Singhal, "Multiport MIMO antennas with mutual coupling reduction techniques for modern wireless transreceive operations: A review," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 2, e21189, 2018.
10. Wei, K., J. Li, L. Wang, Z. Xing, and R. Xu, "S-shaped periodic defected ground structures to reduce microstrip antenna array mutual coupling," Electronics Letters, Vol. 52, No. 15, 1288-1290, 2016.
11. Lee, J., S. Kim, and J. Jang, "Reduction of mutual coupling in planar multiple antenna by using 1-D EBG and SRR structures," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 9, 4194-4198, Sep. 2015.
12. Anguera, J., C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, Fractal shaped antennas: A review, American Cancer Society, 2005, Online, available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/0471654507.eme128.
13. Yang, P., J. Zhu, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, "Antenna selection for MIMO system based on pattern recognition," Digital Communications and Networks, Vol. 5, No. 1, 34-39, 2019.
14. An, W., P. Zhang, J. Xu, H. Luo, L. Huang, and S. Zhong, "A novel machine learning aided antenna selection scheme for MIMO internet of things," Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 20, No. 8, 2250, 2020.
15. Sanguinetti, L., A. Zappone, and M. Debbah, "Deep learning power allocation in massive MIMO," 2018 52nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 1257-1261, 2018.
16. Vu, T. X., L. Lei, S. Chatzinotas, and B. Ottersten, "Machine learning based antenna selection and power allocation in multi-user MISO systems," 2019 International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOPT), 1-6, 2019.
17. Magoarou, L. L. and S. Paquelet, "Online unsupervised deep unfolding for massive MIMO channel estimation," Signal Processing, 2020.
18. Huang, H., W. Xia, J. Xiong, J. Yang, G. Zheng, and X. Zhu, "Unsupervised learning-based fast beamforming design for downlink MIMO," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 7599-7605, 2019.
19. Rasmussen, C. E. and C. K. I. Williams, "Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning," MIT Press, 2006.
20. Jacobs, J. P. and W. P. du Plessis, "Efficient modeling of missile RCS magnitude responses by Gaussian processes," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 3228-3231, 2017.
21. Jacobs, J. P., "Characterisation by Gaussian processes of finite substrate size effects on gain patterns of microstrip antennas," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1189-1195, Aug. 2016.
22. Jacobs, J. P. and S. Koziel, "Two-stage gaussian process modeling of microwave structures for design optimization," Simulation-Driven Modeling and Optimization, 161-184, S. Koziel, L. Leifsson, and X.-S. Yang, Eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
23. Jacobs, J. P., "Efficient resonant frequency modeling for dual-band microstrip antennas by Gaussian process regression," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 337-341, 2015.
24. Alu, A., M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 75, 155410, Apr. 2007.
25. Krzysztofik, W. J., "Fractals in antennas and metamaterials applications," Fractal Analysis, F. Brambila (ed.), Ch. 3, IntechOpen, Rijeka, 2017.
26. Ryu, J. and H. Kim, "Compact MIMO antenna for application to smart glasses using T-shaped ground plane," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 60, No. 8, 2010-2013, 2018.
27. Su, S., C. Lee, and F. Chang, "Printed MIMO-antenna system using neutralization-line technique for wireless USB-dongle applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 2, 456-463, Feb. 2012.
28. Kumar, S., R. Kumar, R. K. Vishwakarma, and K. Srivastava, "An improved compact MIMO antenna for wireless applications with band-notched characteristics," AEU — International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 90, 20-29, 2018.
29. Yang, Z., H. Yang, and H. Cui, "A compact MIMO antenna with inverted C-shaped ground branches for mobile terminals," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2016, No. 3080563, 2016.
30. Dkiouak, A., A. Zakriti, M. E. Quahabi, A. Zugari, and M. Khalladi, "Design of a compact MIMO antenna for wireless applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 72, 115-124, 2018.
31. Anuvind, R., S. D. Joseph, and A. Kothari, "2 × 2 MIMO antenna at 2.4GHz for WLAN applications," 2015 International Conference on Microwave, Optical and Communication Engineering (ICMOCE), 80-83, Dec. 2015.
32. Malviya, L., R. K. Panigrahi, and M. V. Kartikeyan, "2 × 2 MIMO antenna for ISM band application," 2016 11th International Conference on Industrial and Information System (ICIIS), 794-797, 2016.
33. Ayatollahi, M., Q. Rao, and D. Wang, "A compact, high isolation and wide bandwidth antenna array for long term evolution wireless devices," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 10, 4960-4963, Oct. 2012.