Vol. 107

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Fractal Minkowski-Shaped Resonator for Noninvasive Biomedical Measurements: Blood Glucose Test

By Sarah Majid Obaid, Taha Ahmed Elwi, and Muhammad Ilyas
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 107, 143-156, 2021


This work presents a noninvasive measurement technique to detect the blood glucose level for diabetic individuals using a fractal microwave resonator printed on an FR-4 substrate. The proposed fractal is based on the 1st order of Minkowski open loops (MOL) coupled with an open-stub transmission line (OSTL) to increase the resonator selectivity at 2.45 GHz. Moreover, an air gap in the middle path of the OSTL is filed with multi wall carbon nanotubes patch (CNT) to increase the field fringing at a specific region. The proposed resonator is designed numerically with CST Microwave Studio. The size limitations for biomedical devices are considered to account for wearable applications. Later, an analytical study is presented on the proposed resonator sensitivity. The detection technique is based on the resonant frequency tuning, bandwidth variation, impedance matching change, and phase displacement for the S-parameters in the S11 and S12 spectra. The sample under test is mounted on an CNT patch of the OSTL which employs the characterization of the specimen. The proposed design idea could be generalized for a wide variety of biomedical detection liquids.


Sarah Majid Obaid, Taha Ahmed Elwi, and Muhammad Ilyas, "Fractal Minkowski-Shaped Resonator for Noninvasive Biomedical Measurements: Blood Glucose Test," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 107, 143-156, 2021.


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