Vol. 91

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

A Frequency Agility Synthesizer with Low Phase Noise for Fully Electronic Millimeter Wave Imaging

By Chunhui Fang, Bing Huang, Liang Wu, and Xiaowei Sun
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 91, 227-239, 2019


A wide Ka-band frequency agility synthesizer with low phase noise and high frequency stability is presented in this paper, which serves as the emission source of transmitter and the local oscillator (LO) of receiver in fully electronic millimeter wave (MMW) imaging system. In order to improve operating frequency and shorten hopping time, a novel method is proposed in this synthesizer. By mixing direct digital synthesis (DDS) with multiple phase locked loops (PLLs) and multiplying the mixed signal, a high output frequency with low phase noise and rapid frequency hopping is realized. The experimental results show that the frequency synthesizer achieves frequency resolution of 1 MHz from 27 to 32 GHz and phase noise of -95 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz carrier offset. In addition, the frequency switching time is 2 μs, and broadband spurs do not exceed -60 dBc.


Chunhui Fang, Bing Huang, Liang Wu, and Xiaowei Sun, "A Frequency Agility Synthesizer with Low Phase Noise for Fully Electronic Millimeter Wave Imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 91, 227-239, 2019.


    1. Ahmed, S. S., A. Genghammer, A. Schiessl, and L.-P Schmidt, "Fully electronic-band personnel imager of 2m2 aperture based on a multistatic architecture," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 61, No. 1, 651-657, 2013.

    2. Liu, C., M. Yang, and X. Sun, "Towards robust human millimeter wave imaging inspection system in real time with deep learning," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 161, 87-100, 2018.

    3. Sheen, D. M., D. L. Mcmakin, and T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 49, No. 9, 1581-1592, 2001.

    4. Schiessl, A., A. Genghammer, and S. S. Ahmed, "Hardware realization of a 2m×1m fully electronic real-time mm-wave imaging system," European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR), Apr. 2012.

    5. Wang, H., D. Guo, and L. Wang, "Design and implementation of Ku-band frequency synthesizer," International Conference on Integrated Circuits and Microsystems (ICICM), Nov. 2016.

    6. Zhao, Z., X. Li, and W. Chang, "LFM-CW signal generator based on hybrid DDS-PLL structure," Electronic Letters, Vol. 49, No. 6, 391-393, Mar. 2013.

    7. Ahmed, S. S., A. Schiessl, and L.-P. Schmidt, "A novel fully electronic active real-time imager based on a planar multistatic sparse array," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 59, No. 12, 3567 -3576, Dec. 2011.

    8. Kroupa, F., Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, England, 2003.

    9. Crawford, J. A., Frequency Synthesizer Design Handbook, Artech House, Boston, 1994.

    10. Chen, M., K. Han, M. Yang, and X. Sun, "Effects of phase-locked loop bandwidth on error vector magnitude in transmitter," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 10, 1315-1322, Jul. 2012.

    11. Razavi, B., Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops and Clock Recovery Circuits: Theory and Design, Wiley-IEEE, Piscataway, New Jersey, 1996.

    12. Banerjee, D., PLL Performance, Simulation, and Design, 5th edition, Texas Instruments Inc., Texas, May 2017.

    13. Analog Devices Inc., "Fractional-N PLL with integrated VCO 45–1050, 1400–2100, 2800– 4200 MHz,", Norwood, U.S.A., Sep. 2011, [online] Available: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/hmc829.pdf.

    14. Gardner, F. M., Phaselock Techniques, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2005.

    15. Analog Devices Inc., "1 GSPS direct digital synthesizer with 14-Bit DAC,", Nor-wood, U.S.A., Jun. 2010, [online] Available: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/datasheets/AD9912.pdf.

    16. Analog Devices Inc., "Fractional-N PLL with Integrated VCO SMT, 25–3000 MHz,", Norwood, U.S.A., May 2012, [online] Available: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technicaldocumentation/data-sheets/hmc830.pdf.

    17. Ma, H., X. Tang, F. Xiao, and X. Zhang, "Phase noise analysis and estimate of millimeter wave PLL frequency synthesizer," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves, Vol. 26, No. 2, 271-278, 2005.

    18. Vankka, J., (n.d.), "Spur reduction techniques in sine output direct digital synthesis," Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 951-959, Jun. 1996.

    19. Caro, D. D. and A. G. M. Strollo, "High-performance direct digital frequency synthesizers using piecewise-polynomial approximation," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol. 52, No. 2, 324-337, Feb. 2005.

    20. Cui, W., X. Zhang, X. Lu, Y. Ren, M. Zhan, and B. Yan, "The design of high performance X-band frequency synthesizer based on DDS and PLL," IEEE Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference,, 97-100, Jul. 2013.

    21. Wang, L., Y. Yang, J. Cai, and G. Liu, "A wide frequency coverage synthesizer with high performance for 3MHz–5 GHz transceiver," IEEE Third International Conference on Information Science and Technology, Mar. 2013.

    22. Biswas, S. and V. Revathi, "A fast-switching low-spurious 6–18 GHz hybrid frequency synthesizer," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and RF Conference, Dec. 2015.

    23. Zhu, Y., H. Zhang, and W. Hong, "A frequency agile synthesizer using DDS and PLL techniques for FMCW radar," Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Dec. 2015.