The paper presents an advanced quasi-FEA technique on the iron losses prediction using Bertotti's iron loss separation models, in which a curve fitting is taken into account for coefficients calculation of each model. Moreover, the skin effect and saturation consideration are applied in order to check the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from low up to high frequencies 50 to 700 (Hz). Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-speed-flux density computation that is discussed and presented. The iron loss characteristics of a radial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with closed-slots and outer rotor topology are also discussed. The quasi-finite-element (FE) analysis was performed using a 2-D and 3-D FEA, where the employed quasi-2-D FEA is proposed and compared with 3-D FEA, and along with experimental verifications. Finally, all the iron-loss models under realistic and non-ideal magnetization conditions are verified experimentally on a surface-mounted PMSG for wind generation application.
2. Harrison, R., E. Hau, and H. Snel, Large Wind Turbines Design and Economics, Wiley, New York, 2000 (ISBN 0471-494569).
3. Dubois, M. R., "Optimized permanent magnet generator topologies for direct-drive wind tur-bines,", Ph.D. dissertation, Delft Univ. Technol., Delft, The Netherlands, 2004.
4. Grauers, A., "Design of direct-driven permanent-magnet generators for wind turbines,", Ph.D. dissertation, Chalmers Univ. Technol., Goteborg, Sweden, 1996.
5. Poore, R. and T. Lettenmaier, "Alternative design study report: Wind PACT advanced wind tur-bine drive train designs study," NREL, Golden, CO, Rep. NREL/SR-500-33196, Aug. 2003.
6. Cotrell, J. R., "A preliminary evaluation of a multiple-generator drive train configuration for wind turbines," presented at the 2002 ASME Wind Energy Symp., 40th AIAA Aerosp. Sci. Meeting Exhibit, Collection Tech. Papers, Reno, NV, Jan. 14-17, 2002.
7. Martin, F., et al., "Improved analytical determination of eddy current losses in surface mounted permanent magnets of synchronous machine," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 50, No. 6, 1-8, Jun. 2014.
8. Hemeida, A., et al., "Comparison of methods for permanent magnet eddy-current loss computations with and without reaction field considerations in axial flux PMSM," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 51, No. 9, 1-8, Sep. 2015.
9. Kakhki, M. T., et al., "New approach for accurate prediction of eddy current losses in laminated material in the presence of skin effect with 2-D FEA," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 52, No. 3, 1-4, Mar. 2016.
10. Huang, W. Y., et al., "Optimization of magnet segmentation for reduction of eddy-current losses in permanent magnet synchronous machine," IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., Vol. 25, No. 2, 381-386, 2010.
11. Steentjes, S., et al., "Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines ," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 49, No. 7, 3945-3948, Jul. 2013.
12. Eggers, D., et al., "Advanced iron-loss estimation for nonlinear material behavior," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 48, No. 11, 3021-3024, Nov. 2012.
13. Bertotti, G., "General properties of power losses in soft ferromagnetic materials," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan. 1988.
14. Bertotti, G. and M. Pasquale, "Physical interpretation of induction and frequency dependence of power losses in soft magnetic materials," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep. 1992.
15. Bertotti, G., et al., "An improved estimation of iron losses in rotating electrical machines," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov. 1991.
16. Fratila, M., et al., "Iron loss calculation in a synchronous generator using finite element analysis," IEEE Tran. Energy Conv., Vol. PP, No. 99, 1-8, doi: 10.1109/TEC.2017.2648512, 2017.
17. Rasilo, P., et al., "Experimental determination and numerical evaluation of core losses in a 150-kVA wound-field synchronous machine," IET Electric Power App., Vol. 7, No. 2, 97-105, doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2012.02422013.
18. Kowal, D., et al., "Comparison of frequency and time-domain iron and magnet loss modeling including PWM harmonics in a PMSG for a wind energy application," IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, Vol. 30, No. 2, 476-486, 2015.
19. Pfingsten, G. V., et al., "Operating point resolved loss calculation approach in saturated induction machines," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electr., Vol. 64, No. 3, 2538-2546, 2017.
20. Boglietti, A., A. Cavagnino, M. Lazzari, and M. Pastorelli, "Predicting iron losses in soft mag-netic materials with arbitrary voltage supply: An engineering approach," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 39, No. 2, 981-989, 2003.
21. Krings, A. and J. Soulard, "Overview and comparison of iron loss models for electrical ma-chines," Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 3, 162-169, 2010.
22. Ionel, D. M., M. Popescu, S. J. Dellinger, T. J. E. Miller, R. J. Heideman, and M. I. McGilp, "On the variation with flux and frequency of the core loss coefficients in electrical machines," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 42, No. 3, 658-667, May 2006.
23. Ionel, D. M., M. Popescu, M. I. McGilp, T. J. E. Miller, S. J. Dellinger, and R. J. Heideman, "Computation of core losses in electrical machines using improved models for laminated steel," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 43, No. 6, 1554-1564, Nov. 2007.
24. Huang, Y., J. Dong, J. G. Zhu, and Y. Guo, "Core loss modeling for permanent-magnet motor based on flux variation locus and finite-element method ," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 48, No. 2, 1023-1026, 2012.
25. Gerlando, A. D. and R. Perini, "Evaluation of the effects of the voltage harmonics on the extra iron losses in the inverter fed electromagnetic devices," IEEE Trans. on Energy Conv., Vol. 14, No. 1, 57-62, Mar. 1999.
26. Lasdon, L. S., et al., "Design and testing of a generalized reduced gradient code for nonlinear optimization," Case Western Reserve University, National Technical Information Service U.S. Department of Commerce (NTIS), AD-A009-402, 1-45, Mar. 1975.