When deriving a range-Doppler image or a time-frequency image of a fast-maneuvering target at long range, existing range alignment methods yield poor results due to the large numbers of range profiles (RPs) and range bins that are required for this task. This paper proposes a three-step range alignment method to overcome the problems of these existing methods and to yield focused images: (1) coarse alignment using the interpolated center of mass of each RP, (2) fine alignment with an integer step using an entropy cost function, and (3) fine-tuning using particle swarm optimization. Compared to existing methods, the proposed method is computationally more efficient and provides better image focus.
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