This paper presents a compact, low-profile, wearable dual-band antenna operating in the Wireless WLAN band of 5.15~5.25 GHz and 5.72~5.83 GHz. The proposed antenna is composed of a planar monopole and underneath three by three array arrangement of Jerusalem Cross (JC) structure metasurface. The simulated results show that the integrated antenna express 4.09% and 4.14% impendence bandwidths, increased gain up to 7.9 dB and 8.2 dB, front to back (FB) ratio achieved to 20 dB and 18 dB at the two frequencies, respectively. The measured results agree well with simulations. In addition, the metasurface not only is equivalent to a ground plane for isolation, but also acts as the main radiator, which enables a great reduction in the specific absorption rate (SAR). Furthermore, because of a compact solution, the proposed integrated antenna can be a promising device for various wearable systems.
2. Hall, P. S., H. Yang, Y. I. Nechayev, A. Alomainy, C. C. Constantinou, and C. Parini, "Antennas and propagation for on-body communication systems," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 3, 41-58, 2007.
3. Hertleer, C., A. VanLaere, H. Rogier, and L. van Langenhove, "Influence of relative humidity on textile antenna performance," Textile Research Journal, Vol. 80, No. 2, 177-183, 2009.
4. Osman, M. A. R., M. K. Abd Rahim, N. A. Samsuri, H. A. M. Salim, and M. F. Ali, "Embroidered fully textile wearable antenna for medical monitoring applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 117, 321-337, 2011.
5. Kurup, D., W. Joseph, G. Vermeeren, and L. Martens, "Specific absorption rate and path loss in specific body location in heterogeneous human model," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 7, No. 1, 35-43, 2013.
6. Nechayev, Y. I., X. Wu, C. C. Constantinou, and P. S. Hall, "Millimetre-wave path-loss variability between two body-mounted monopole antennas," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1-7, 2013.
7. Bai, Q. and R. Langley, "Crumpling of PIFA textile antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, 63-70, 2012.
8. Soh, P. J., G. A. E. Vandenbosch, O. S. Liam, and N. H. M. Rais, "Design of a broadband all-textile slotted PIFA," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, 379-384, 2012.
9. Geng, J.-P., J. Li, R.-H. Jin, S. Ye, X. Liang, and M. Li, "The development of curved microstrip antenna with defected ground structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 53-73, 2009.
10. Shao, Z. Z. and R. Langley, "Dual-band wearable textile antenna on an EBG substrate," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 926-935, 2009.
11. Koschny, T., M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 93, No. 10, 107402, 2004.
12. Schurig, D., J. Mock, and D. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, No. 4, 041109, 2006.
13. Gay-Balmaz, P. and O. J. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2929-2936, 2002.
14. Nanfang, Y., P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, "Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction," Science, Vol. 334, No. 6054, 333-337, 2011.
15. Zhu, H., S. W. Cheung, K. L. Chung, and T. I. Yuk, "Linear-to-circular polarization conversion using metasurface," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 9, 4615-4623, 2013.
16. Dickie, R., R. Cahill, N. Mitchell, H. Gamble, and V. Fusco, "664 GHz dual polarisation frequency selective surface," Electronics Letters, Vol. 46, No. 7, 472-474, 2010.
17. Vallecchi, A., J. R. De Luis, F. Capolino, and F. D. Flaviis, "Low profile fully planar folded dipole antenna on a high impedance surface," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, 51-62, 2012.
18. Sievenpiper, D., L. Zhang, R. F. J. Broas, N. G. Alexopolous, and E. Yablonovitch, "High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces with a forbidden frequency band," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2059-2074, 1999.
19. Simovski, C. R., P. de Maagt, and I. V. Melchakova, "High-impedance surfaces having stable resonance with respect to polarization and incidence angle," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 3, 908-914, 2005.
20. Kundu, A. and A. K. Bhattacharjee, "Design of compact triple frequency microstrip antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2125-2129, 2015.
21. Burokur, S. N., J. P. Daniel, P. Ratajczak, and A. de Lustrac, "Tunable bilayered metasurface for frequency reconfigurable directive emissions," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 6, 064101, 2010.
22. Wakatsuchi, H., S. Kim, J. J. Rushton, and D. F. Sievenpiper, "Circuit-based nonlinear metasurface absorbers for high power surface currents," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 21, 214103, 2013.
23. Yuandan, D. and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based antennas," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 7, 2271-2285, 2012.
24. Liu, Y. and X. Zhang, "Metamaterials: A new frontier of science and technology," Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2494-2507, 2011.
25. Jiang, Z., D. E. Brocker, P. E. Sieber, and D. H. Werner, "A compact, low-profile metasurface-enabled antenna for wearable medical body-area network devices," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 8, 4021-4030, 2014.
26. Ziolkowski, R. W., P. Jin, and C.-C. Lin, "Metamaterial-inspired engineering of antennas," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 10, 1720-1731, 2011.
27. Raad, H. R., A. I. Abbosh, H. M. Al-Rizzo, and D. G. Rucker, "Flexible and compact AMC based antenna for telemedicine applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 2, 524-531, 2013.
28. Jiang, Z. and D. H. Werner, "Robust low-profile metasurface-enabled wearable antennas for off-body communications," 2014 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), April 2014.
29. Cahill, R. and E. A. Parker, "Concentric ring and Jerusalem cross arrays as frequency selective surfaces for a 45A˚ incidence diplexer," Electronics Letters, Vol. 18, No. 8, 313-314, 1982.
30. Stuchly, M. and S. Stuchly, "Dielectric properties of biological substances-tabulated," Journal of Microwave Power, Vol. 15, No. 1, 19-26, 1980.