This paper investigates the effects on received mutual coupling of λ/2 dipole arrays placed near real-earth. As a rule of thumb, estimation of mutual coupling can be divided in two regions of antenna height that is very near ground 0 < h < λ and fairly freespace region h ≥ λ. The receiving antenna mutual coupling remains fairly unaffected from ground conductivity, when antenna height h ≥ λ. Both vertical and horizontal polarization cases showed the same trend. Investigation of effects of nearness of good-ground to the array on DOA estimation revealed that for azimuth DOA estimation, the proposed method of removing mutual coupling works well even for near ground.
2. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, 1997.
3. Kraus, J. D., Antennas: For All Application, 3rd Ed., McGraw Hill, 2002.
4. Kaiser, K. L., Electromagnetic Compatibility Handbook, CRC Press, 2004.
5. Gupta, I. and A. Ksienski, "Effect of mutual coupling on the performance of adaptive arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 31, No. 5, 785-791, 1983.
6. Friedlander, B. and A. J. Weiss, "Direction finding in the presence of mutual coupling," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 3, 273-284, 1991.
7. Fabrizio, S. and S. Alberto, "A novel online mutual coupling compensation algorithm for uniform and linear arrays," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 55, No. 2, 560-573, 2007.
8. Hui, H. T., "A new definition of mutual impedance for application in dipole receiving antenna arrays," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 3, 364-367, 2004.
9. Ye, Z. F., J. S. Dai, X. Xu, and X. P. Wu, "Doa estimation for uniform linear array with mutual coupling," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 45, No. 1, 280-288, 2009.
10. Mirkamali, A., J. Nateghi, and H. Hadidian, "Evaluation of array calibration methods for doa estimation in presence of ground mutual coupling and near zone objects," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-4, 2010.
11. Wait, J. R., Antenna Theory Part II, Volume 7 of Inter-University Electronics Series, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.
12. Miller, E. K., A. J. Poggigo, J. Burke, and E. S. Seld, "Analysis of wire antennas in the presence of a conducting half-space. Part I. The vertical antenna in free space," Canadian Journal of Physics,, Vol. 50, No. 9, 879-888, 1972.
13. Sarkar, T., "Analysis of arbitrarily oriented thin wire antenna arrays over imperfect ground planes," AE Special Reprint from ARCHIV FR Elektronik UND Bertragungstechnik Electronics and Communication Band , Vol. 31, 449-457, 1977.
14. Spies, K. P. and J. R. Wait, "Determining electrical ground constants from the mutual impedance of small coplanar loops," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 20, No. 4, 501-502, 1972.
15. Ahmed, I., W. F. Perger, and S. A. Zekavat, "Effects of ground constituent parameters on array mutual coupling for doa estimation," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2011, 1, 2011.
16. Hui, H. T., "Improved compensation for the mutual coupling effect in a dipole array for direction finding," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2498-2503, Sep. 2003.
17. Sommerfeld, A., Partial Differential Equations in Physics, Academic Press, 1964.
18. Miller, E. K., A. J. Poggio, G. J. Burke, and E. S. Selden, "Analysis of wire antennas in the presence of a conducting half-space. Part II. The horizontal antenna in free space," Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 50, No. 21, 2614-2627, 1972.
19. COMSOL, Comsol multiphysics modelling and engineering simulation software, , 2011.
20. Schmidt, R., "Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 3, 276-280, 1986.
21. Hui, H. T., "A practical approach to compensate for the mutual coupling effect in an adaptive dipole array," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 5, 1262-1269, 2004.
22. Zhang, T. T., H. T. Hui, and Y. L. Lu, "Compensation for the mutual coupling effect in the esprit direction finding algorithm by using a more effective method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1552-1555, Apr. 2005.