Vol. 41

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2013-06-27

Bandwidth Improvement of a Compact Quadrature Hybrid Coupler with Harmonic Rejection Using Lumped Elements

By Yu Ye, Ling-Yun Li, Jian-Zhong Gu, and Xiao-Wei Sun
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 41, 121-135, 2013
doi:10.2528/PIERC13051705

Abstract

A compact quadrature hybrid coupler with harmonic suppression adopting lumped-element band-stop resonator is proposed aiming for bandwidth improvement. Conventionally, harmonic rejection is realized by three band-stop resonators in lumped hybrid design. The using of three band-stop resonators can realize better harmonic suppression while exhibiting narrower frequency response. So as to improve operation bandwidth performance, the number of band-stop resonator applied in this proposed topology is minimized to one. Trading off with acceptable reduction in harmonic rejection, the proposed hybrid can enlarge working bandwidth with fewer lumped devices. Detailed design and theoretical analysis are presented and the expressions of lumped elements with dependence of rejected harmonic frequency are obtained. To validate the analysis, three 2.45 GHz couplers are fabricated on an FR-4 printed circuit board. The experimental results exhibit 27.3%, 26.9% and 23.3% operation bandwidth with better than 16 dB, 17 dB, and 21 dB harmonic suppressions at 4.9 GHz, 6.1 GHz, and 7.35 GHz, respectively. Less than 0.8 dB amplitude imbalance and 2° phase error are achieved over the whole operation frequency for the all three couplers, which are matched well with theoretical analysis.

Citation


Yu Ye, Ling-Yun Li, Jian-Zhong Gu, and Xiao-Wei Sun, "Bandwidth Improvement of a Compact Quadrature Hybrid Coupler with Harmonic Rejection Using Lumped Elements," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 41, 121-135, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIERC13051705
http://jpier.org/PIERC/pier.php?paper=13051705

References


    1. Ozis, D., J. Paramesh, and D. J. Allstot, "Integrated quadrature couplers and their application in image-reject receivers," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits., Vol. 44, No. 5, 1464-1476, May 2009.
    doi:10.1109/JSSC.2009.2016705

    2. Chang, C.-W., Y.-J. E. Chen, and J.-H. Chen, "A power-recycling technique for improving power amplifier efficiency under load mismatch," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 10, 571-573, Oct. 2011.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2011.2165535

    3. Bulus, U., O. Kizilbey, H. Aniktar, and A. Gunes, "Broadband direction-finding antenna using suspended microstrip-line hybrid coupler for handheld devices," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 80-83, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2242840

    4. Shu, P. and Q. Feng, "Design of a compact quad-band hybrid antenna for compass/WiMAX/MLAN applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 585-598, 2013.

    5. Wong, Y. S., S. Y. Zheng, and W. S. Chan, "Multifolded bandwidth branch line coupler with filtering characteristic using coupled port feeding," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 17-35, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11041401

    6. Cheng, Y. J., L. Wang, J. Wu, and Y. Fan, "Directional coupler with good restraint outside the passband and its frequency-agile application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 135, 759-771, 2013.

    7. Wang, W.-H., T.-M. Huang, and R.-B. Wu, "Miniatured rat-race coupler with bandpass response and good stopband rejection," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., 709-712, 2009.

    8. Kuo, J.-T., J.-S. Wu, and Y.-C. Chiou, "Miniaturized rat race coupler with suppression of spurious passband," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 1, 46-48, Aug. 2007.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.887254

    9. Sung, Y. J., C. S. Ahn, and Y.-S. Kim, "Size reduction and harmonic suppression of rat-race hybrid coupler using defected ground structure," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 14, No. 1, 7-9, Jan. 2004.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2003.821499

    10. Gu, , J.-Z. and X.-W. Sun, "Miniaturization and harmonic suppression rat-race coupler using C-SCMRC resonators with distributive equivalent circuit," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 12, 880-882, Dec. 2005.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.859980

    11. Chiu, H.-C., C.-H. Lai, and T.-G. Ma, "Miniaturized ratrace coupler with out-of-band suppression using double-layer synthesized coplanar waveguides," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., 2012.

    12. Wang, J., B.-Z. Wang, Y.-X. Guo, L. C. Ong, and S. Q. Xiao, "A compact slow-wave microstrip branch-line coupler with high performance," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 7, 501-503, Jul. 2007.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.899307

    13. Tsai, K.-Y., H.-S. Yang, J.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. E. Chen, "A miniaturized 3 dB branch-line hybrid coupler with harmonics suppression," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 10, 537-539, Oct. 2011.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2011.2164901

    14. Hazeri, A. R. and T. Faraji, "Miniaturization and harmonic suppression of the branch-line hybrid coupler," Int. J. Electron, Vol. 98, No. 12, 1699-1710, Dec. 2011.
    doi:10.1080/00207217.2011.609968

    15. Hou, J. A. and Y. H. Wang, "A compact quadrature hybrid based on high-pass and low-pass lumped elements," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 8, 595-597, Aug. 2007.
    doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.901775

    16. Ohta, I., X. P. Li, T. Kawai, and Y. Kokubo, "A design of lumped-element 3 dB quadrature hybrids," Proc. Asia-Pacific Microw. Conf., Vol. 3, 1141-1144, Dec. 1997.

    17. Chiang, Y. C. and C. Y. Chen, "Design of a wideband lumped-element 3-dB quadrature coupler," IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 49, No. 3, 476-479, 2001.
    doi:10.1109/22.910551

    18. Vogel, R. W., "Analysis and design of lumped and lumped distributed element directional couplers for MIC and MMIC applications," IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 40, No. 2, 253-262, 1992.
    doi:10.1109/22.120097

    19. Hou, J. A. and Y. H. Wang, "Design of compact 90o and 180o couplers with harmonic suppression using lumped-element bandstop resonators," IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 58, No. 11, 2932-2939, Nov. 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2010.2078950

    20. Reed, J. and G. J. Wheeler, "A method of analysis of symmetrical four-port networks," IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 4, No. 4, 246-252, Oct. 1956.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.1956.1125071

    21. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, Artech House, Norwell, MA, 1990.

    22. Faria, J. A., Multiconductor Transmission-line Structures, Wiley, New York, 1993.