Recent advances in satellite communication technologies in the tropical regions have led to significant increase in the demand for services and applications that require high channel quality for fixed and mobile satellite terminals. Due to lack of reliable investigations regarding accurate performance evaluation, experiments, and analysis on the satellite communication link in tropical regions under atmospheric impairments for both scenarios, accurate signal quality performance analysis is necessary. This paper presents the link characteristics observations and performance analysis with propagation measurements done in tropical region to provide an accurate database regarding rain attenuation in the tropics for fixed and mobile scenarios. The paper also presents a newly developed extension attached to the measurements setup for improved packet error rate (PER) performance evaluation related to the degradations occur in channel quality for different types of impairments (rain, mobility, and physical obstacles) for 4 modulation schemes, namely QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-QAM and 32-QAM. The results show that the rain impairments at Ku band cause up to 12.5 dB and 23 dB at 77.5° and 40.1° elevation angles respectively in two tropical regions inside Malaysia for fixed scenario with a significant increase in PER at higher M-ary modulation schemes. For mobile scenario, the PER appeared at higher M-ary scheme due to the lower signal power degradation in which, in turn, exceeded 1 dB when the vehicle speed exceed 100 km/hr at clear sky. The obstacles at the satellite communication link are shown to have significant effect on the power and PER received by satellite terminal especially at higher M-ary modulation schemes.
2. Emiliani, L. D., J. Agudelo, E. Gutierrez, J. Restrepo, and C. Fradique-Mendez, "Development of rain-attenuation and rain-rate maps for satellite system design in the Ku and Ka bands in Colombia," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 46, 54-68, 2004.
3. Mandeep, J. S., "Comparison of rainfall models with Ku-band beacon measurement," Acta Astronautica, Vol. 64, 264-271, 2009.
4. Panagopoulos, A. D., P. D. M. Arapoglou, and P. G. Cottis, "Satellite communications at Ku, Ka, and V bands: Propagation impairments and mitigation techniques," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 6, 2-14, 2004.
5. Mandeep, J., Y. Ng, H. Abdullah, and M. Abdullah, "The study of rain specific attenuation for the prediction of satellite propagation in Malaysia," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 31, 681-689, 2010.
6. ITU, "Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of Earth-space telecommunication systems,", ed., International Telecommunication Union-Recommendation, P.618-10, 2009.
7. ITU, I.T.U., "Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling,", ed., International Telecommunication Union-Recommendation, P.837-6, 2012.
8. Mandeep, J. S., S. I. S. Hassan, and K. Tanaka, "Rainfall measurements at Ku-band satellite link in Penang, Malaysia," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 2, 147-151, 2008.
9. Mandeep, J. S., H. Ooi Wen, M. Abdullah, M. Tariqul, M. Ismail, W. Suparta, B. Yatim, P. S. Menon, and H. Abdullah, "Modified ITU-R rain attenuation model for equatorial climate," 2011 IEEE International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace), 89-92, 2011.
10. Omotosho, T. V. and C. O. Oluwafemi, "Impairment of radio wave signal by rainfall on ¯xed satellite service on earth-space path at 37 stations in Nigeria," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 71, 830-840, 2009.
11. Mandeep, J. S., S. I. S. Hassan, and M. F. Ain, "Rain rate conversion for various integration time for equatorial and tropical climates," International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, Vol. 26, 329-345, 2008.
12. Adhikari, A., S. Das, A. Bhattacharya, and A. Maitra, "Improving rain attenuation estimation: Modelling of effective path length using Ku-band measurements at a tropical location," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 34, 173-186, 2011.
13. Ramachandran, V. and V. Kumar, "Modified rain attenuation model for tropical regions for Ku-band signals," International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, Vol. 25, 53-67, 2007.
14. Qingwen, L., Z. Shengli, and G. B. Giannakis, "Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and coding with truncated ARQ over wireless links," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 3, 1746-1755, 2004.
15. ITU, "Propagation data required for the design of Earth-space land mobile telecommunication systems,", ed., International Telecommunication Union-Recommendation, P.681-7, 2009.
16. Mandeep, J., R. Nalinggam, and W. Bt Ismail, "Analysis of rain attenuation models for south east Asia countries," Journal of nfrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 32, 233-240, 2011.
17. Mandeep, J. S. and J. E. Allnutt, "Rain attenuation predictions at Ku-band in south east Asia countries," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 76, 65-74, 2007.