A new accurate Volterra-based model is introduced for behavioral modeling and digital predistortion (DPD) of power amplifiers (PAs). This model extends the GMP model with specific cross terms, and these augmented terms significantly increase the model's performance. The proposed model's performance is assessed using a LDMOS Doherty PA driven by two modulated signals (a 4-carrier WCDMA signal and a single carrier 16QAM signal). The experimental results in both behavioral modeling and DPD applications demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the hybrid memory polynomial-envelope memory polynomial (HME) model and generalized memory polynomial (GMP) model. Compared with the HME model, the proposed model shows an average normalized mean square error (NMSE) improvement of 2.2 dB in the behavioral modeling, average adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement of 2.8/2.5 dB in the DPD application, and 20% reduction in the number of coe±cients. In comparison with the GMP model, the proposed model achieves higher model accuracy and better DPD performance, but reduces approximately 40% of coefficients.
2. El Maazouzi, , L., , A. Mediavilla, and P. Colantonio, , "A contribution to linearity improvement of a highly effcient PA for WIMAX applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 59-84, , 2011.
3. Hashmi, M. S., , Z. S. Rogojan, and F. M. Ghannouchi, , "A flexible dual-in°ection point RF predistortion linearizer for microwave power amplifiers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, , 1-18, 2010.
4. Zhu, , A., , M. Wren, and T. J. Brazil, "An effcient Volterra-based behavioral model for wideband RF power amplifiers," 2003 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 2, 787-790, 2003..
5. Zhu, , A. , T. J. Brazil, and , "Behavioral modeling of RF power amplifiers based on pruned Volterra series," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 14, No. 12, 563-565, 2004.
6. Zhu, A., J. C. Pedro, and T. J. Brazil, "Dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra behavioral modeling of RF power amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.,, Vol. 54, No. 12, 4323-4332, , 2006.
7. Crespo-Cadenas, C., J. Reina-Tosinaand Maria, and J. Madero-Ayora, , "Volterra behavioral model for wideband RF amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 55, No. 3, 449-457, 2007..
8. Carlos, , C. C., , R. T. Javier, and J. M. A. Maria, "A new approach to pruning Volterra models for power amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 58, No. 4, 2113-2119, 2010.
9. Ding, , L., , G. T. Zhou, D. R. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. S. Kenney, J. Kim and C. R. Giardina, "A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials," IEEE Trans. Commun., , Vol. 52, No. 1, 159-165, , 2004.
10. Hammi, , O., , M. Younes, and A. Kwan, "Performance-driven dimension estimation of memory polynomial behavioral models for wireless transmitters and power amplifiers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,, Vol. 12, , 173-189, 2010.
11. Hammi, , O., , F. M. Ghannouchi, and B. Vassilakis, "A compact envelope-memory polynomial for RF transmitters modeling with application to baseband and RF-digital predistortion," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.,, Vol. 18, No. 5, 359-361, 2008.
12. Hammi, , O., , M. Younes, and F. M. Ghannouchi, , "Metrics and methods for benchmarking of RF transmitter behavioral models with application to the development of a hybrid memory polynomial model," IEEE Trans. Broadcast., , Vol. 56, No. 3, 350- 357, 2010.
13. Morgan, , D. R., Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. G. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, "A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers ," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 54, No. 10, 3852-3860, 2006.
14. Landin, , P., , M. Isaksson, and P. Handel, "Comparison of evaluation criteria for power amplifier behavioral modeling," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp., 1441-1444, 2008.
15. Isaksson, , M., , D. Wisell, and D. RÄonnow, , "A comparative analysis of behavioral models for RF power amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.,, Vol. 54, No. 1, 348-359. , 2006.
16. Guan, , L. and A. Zhu, "Simplified dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra model for Doherty power amplifiers," Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimetre-wave Circuits (INMMIC-2011, 1-4, 2011.
17. Younes, , M. , O. Hammi, and , "An accurate complexity-reduced PLUME" model for behavioral modeling and digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,, Vol. 58, No. 4, 1397-1405, 2011.