The goal of this paper is to use polymer-based materials (instead of hard ceramics) in fabrication of dielectric resonator antennas at millimeter-wave frequencies. The soft nature of polymers facilitates machining of antennas, while the low permittivity of polymers naturally enhances the bandwidth. More importantly, advantageous properties (e.g., flexibility and photosensitivity) of some polymers introduce special capabilities which can not be achieved by ceramics. A photosensitive polymer is utilized in this paper to fabricate polymer-based resonator antennas. As a result, deep X-ray lithography is enabled to produce high quality antenna structures. The proposed dielectric resonator antennas which inherently have very low relative permittivity (usually in a range from 3 to 5) are excited effectively using a slotcoupled feeding method and analyzed in both the frequency and time domains. Impedance and radiation properties are compared with higher permittivity ceramic antennas. Impedance bandwidths up to 32 percent are measured and stable radiation patterns with low cross polarization levels over the entire bandwidth are achieved for the prototype antenna. This method enables lithography-based batch fabrication of structures with fine features and complex geometries.
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