Vol. 11

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

A Novel Active Antenna Beamforming Networks Using Butler Matrices

By Sharul Kamal Bin Abd Rahim and Peter Gardner
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 11, 183-198, 2009


In this paper, a novel architecture of using cascaded Butler Matrices (BM) integrated with Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) is proposed. By using the narrow beams available from the Butler Matrix, it is possible for a receiver to increase the gain in the desired signal directions and reduce the gain in interference directions. Hence, high-gain narrowbeam signals for long-range application are produced. A novel technique is introduced which uses high linearity LNAs and a second Butler Matrix, acting as a mirror of the first Butler Matrix, reconstructing the antenna patterns of the individual radiating elements. The resulting outputs have high linearity and broad beam width that can be used for short-range communication. Design of the Butler Matrix, Low Noise Amplifier, Wilkinson Power Divider and High Linearity Low Noise Amplifier are presented in this paper. A final design of active antenna beamforming network using cascaded Butler Matrices integrated with LNAs is proposed. The beamforming network provides a method, which could be applicable in vehicle communication systems, where long-range communications with roadside beacons and short-range communications with the fast moving vehicle are both required.


Sharul Kamal Bin Abd Rahim and Peter Gardner, "A Novel Active Antenna Beamforming Networks Using Butler Matrices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 11, 183-198, 2009.


    1. Wang, F. Y., C. Herget, and D. Zeng, "Guest editorial developing and improving transportation systems: The structure and operation of IEEE intelligent transportation systems society," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, 261-264, Sep. 2005.

    2. Andrisano, O., R. Verdone, and M. Nakagawa, "Intelligent transportation systems: The role of third generation mobile radio networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 9, 2000.

    3. Jing, Z. and S. Roy, "MAC for dedicated short range communications in intelligent transport system," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 41, No. 12, 60-67, 2003.

    4. Inoue, H., S. Osawa, A. Yashiki, and H. Makino, "Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) for AHS services," Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 369-374, June 2004.

    5. Barth, M., X. Lei, C. Yi, and M. Todd, "A hybrid communication architecture for intelligent shared vehicle systems," IEEE ntelligent Vehicle Symposium, Vol. 2, 557-563, 2002.

    6. Alessandri, F., M. Dionigi, R. Sorrentino, and L. Tarricone, "Rigorous and efficient fabrication-oriented CAD and optimization of complex waveguide networks," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol. 45, 2366-2374, 1997.

    7. Denidni, T. A. and T. E. Libar, "Wide band four port Butler matrix for switched multibeam antenna arrays," Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 14th IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 3, 2461-2464, 2003.

    8. Nedil, M., T. A. Denidni, A. Djaiz, and A. M. Habib, "A new ultra wideband beamforming for wireless communications in underground mines," Progress In Electromagnetic Research M, Vol. 4, 1-21, 2008.

    9. Nedil, M., T. A. Denidni, and L. Talbi, "Novel Butler Matrix using CPW multilayer technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol. 54, 499-507, 2006.

    10. He, J., B. Z. Wang, Q. Q. He, Y. X. Xing, and Z. L. Yin, "Wideband X band microstrip Butler Matrix," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 74, 131-140, 2007.

    11. Liberti, J. C. and T. S. Rappaport, Smart Antenna for Wireless Communications: IS-95 and Third Generation CDMA Applications, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.

    12. Zak, T. and K. Sache, "An integrated Butler Matrix in multilayer technology for multi-port amplifier applications," 14th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, May 2002.

    13. Piovano, P., L. Accatino, A. Angelucci, T. Jones, P. Capece, and M. Votta, "Design and breadboarding of wideband N × N Butler matrices for multiport amplifiers," Microwave Conference/Brazil, SBMO International, Vol. 1, 175-180, 1993.

    14. Angelucci, A., P. Audagnotto, P. Corda, and B. Piovano, "Multiport power amplifiers for mobile-radio systems using microstrip Butler matrices," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, Vol. 1, 628-631, Jun. 1994.

    15. Sudrez-Fajardo, C., M. Ferrando-Batallur, A. Valero, and V. Rodrigo, "Multiple beam system with circular arrays," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2005 IEEE, Vol. 4B, 35-38, Jul. 3-8, 2005.

    16. Suarez, C., M. Ferrando-Bataller, and A. Valero-Nogueira, "Pattern synthesis of uniform circular arrays with directive elements," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2004. IEEE, Vol. 3, 2812-2815, Jun. 20-25, 2004.

    17. Nibler, F., High Frequency Circuit Engineering, The Institute of Electrical Engineering, 1996.

    18. Hall, P. S. and S. J. Vetterlein, "Review of radio frequency beam-forming techniques for scanned and multiple beam antennas," IEE Proceeding, Vol. 137, No. 5, 293-303, 1990.

    19. Ruze, J., "Wide-angle metal plate optics," Proc. of the IRE, Vol. 38, No. 1, 53-59, 1950.

    20. Rotman, W. and R. Turner, "Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Applications, Vol. 11, No. 6, 623-632, 1963.

    21. Moody, H. J., "The systematic design of the Butler Matrix," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 6, 786-788, 1964.

    22. Blass, J., "Multidirectional antenna --- A new approach to stacked beams,", IRE Inter. Convention Record, Vol. 8, 1960.

    23. Data Sheet Agilent ATF-55143 Low Noise Enhancement Mode Pseudomorphic HEMT in a Surface Mount Plastic Package.

    24. Data Sheet, Avago Technologies MGA-61563 Current Adjusted, Low Noise Amplifier.