Vol. 3

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2008-04-24

Multi-Wavelengths Optical Switching and Tunable Filters Using Dynamic Superimposed Photorefractive Bragg Grating

By Mohammad Moghimi, Hassan Ghafoori-Fard, and Ali Rostami
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 3, 129-142, 2008
doi:10.2528/PIERC08041302

Abstract

We present a new scheme for all optical multi-wavelengths switching and filtering using photorefractive materials to route optical signals without converting to electronic state. For this purpose the photorefractive effect which is a nonlinear optical effect seen in certain crystals and other materials that respond to light by altering their refractive index is used. When a photorefractive material is illuminated by patterned command light of intensity I(x), a dynamic superimposed Bragg grating can be obtained which is used for optical multi-wavelength switching and filtering purposes.

Citation


Mohammad Moghimi, Hassan Ghafoori-Fard, and Ali Rostami, "Multi-Wavelengths Optical Switching and Tunable Filters Using Dynamic Superimposed Photorefractive Bragg Grating," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 3, 129-142, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERC08041302
http://jpier.org/PIERC/pier.php?paper=08041302

References


    1. Ramaswami, R. and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, a Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, San Fransisco, CA, 1998.

    2. Roberts, G. F., K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, D. McAuley, D. J. Kang, and M. Blamire, "Monolithic 2 × 2 amplifying add/drop switch for optical local area networking," ECOC ’03, Vol. 3, 736-737, Sept. 24, 2003.

    3. Dugan, A., L. Lightworks, and J.-C. Chiao, "The optical switching spectrum: A primer on wavelength switching technologies," Telecommunication Mag., May 2001.

    4. Erdogan, T., "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, No. 8, Aug. 1997.
    doi:10.1109/50.618322

    5. Zhao, J., X. Shen, and Y. Xia, "Beam splitting, combining, and cross coupling through multiple superimposed volume-index gratings," Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 33, 23-28, 2001.
    doi:10.1016/S0030-3992(00)00109-2

    6. Hruschka, P. C., U. Barabas, and L. Gohler, "Optical Narrowband Filter without Resonances," Ser.: ELEC. ENERG, Vol. 17, 209-217, 2004.

    7. Doran, N. J. and D. Wood, Opt. Lett., Vol. 13, 56, 1988.
    doi:10.1364/OL.13.000056

    8. Jensen, S. M., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , Vol. QE-18, 1580, 1982.
    doi:10.1109/JQE.1982.1071438

    9. De Dobbelaere, P., K. Falta, L. Fan, S. Gloeckner, and S. Patra, "Digital MEMS for optical switching," IEEE Commun. Mag., 88-95, Mar. 2002.
    doi:10.1109/35.989763

    10. Bregni, S., G. Guerra, and A. Pattavina, "State of the art of optical switching technology for all-optical networks," Communications World. Rethymo, WSES Press, Greece, 2001.

    11. Mukherjee, B., Optical Communication Networks , McGraw Hill, New York, 1997.

    12. Winful, H. G., J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 35, 379, 1979.
    doi:10.1063/1.91131

    13. Yu, F. and S. Yin (eds.), Photorefractive Optics, Academic Press, San Diego, 2000.

    14. Saleh, B. E. A. and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

    15. Gunter, P. and J. P. Huignard (eds.), Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989.

    16. Yeh, P., Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optic, John Wiley & Sons, 1993.

    17. Burke, W. J., D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, and G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng., Vol. 17, 308, 1978.

    18. Yang, C. H., Y. Q. Zhao, R. Wang, and M. H. Li, Opt. Commun., Vol. 175, 247, 2000.
    doi:10.1016/S0030-4018(99)00753-1

    19. Zheng, W., et al., Opt. Commun., Vol. 227, 259, 2003.
    doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2003.09.054

    20. Zhen, X. H., L. C. Zhao, and Y. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. B, Vol. 76, 655, 2003.

    21. Li, M. H., et al., SPIE 2885, 193, 1996.
    doi:10.1117/12.251867

    22. Wu, Q., et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 81, 4691, 2000.

    23. Li, M. H., et al., Chin. Sci. Bull., Vol. 41, No. 8, 655, 1996.

    24. Zhen, X. H., H. T. Li, Z. J. Sun, S. J. Ye, L. C. Zhao, and Y. H. Xu, Mater. Lett., Vol. 58, 1000.1, 2004.

    25. Reeves, R. J., M. G. Jani, B. Jassemnejad, R. C. Powell, G. J. Mizell, and W. Fay, Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 43, 71, 1991.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.43.71

    26. Medrano, C., M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Gunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 13, 2657, 1996.
    doi:10.1364/JOSAB.13.002657

    27. Chelma, D. S. and J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, Vol. 1 and 2, Academic Press, New York, 1987.

    28. Ulrich, D. R., Nonlinear Optical and Electroactive Polymers, P. N. Prasad (ed.), Plenum Press, New York/London, 1988.

    29. Burland, D. M., R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, Chem. Rev., Vol. 94, 31, 1994.
    doi:10.1021/cr00025a002

    30. Dalton, L. R., A. H. Harper, R. Ghson, W. H. Steir, M. Ziari, H. Fetterman, Y. Shi, R. V. Mustacich, A. K.-Y. Jen, and K. J. Shea, Chem. Master., Vol. 7, 1060, 1995.
    doi:10.1021/cm00054a006

    31. Dagni, R., Chem. Eng. News, Vol. 4, 22, March 1996.

    32. Yeh, P., Optical Waves in Layered Media, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

    33. Yeh, P., "Fundamental limit of the speed of photorefractive effect and its impact on device applications and material research," Appl. Opt., Vol. 26, 602-605, 1987.

    34. Ghafoori-Fard, H., M. J. Moghimi, and A. Rostami, "Linear and nonlinear superimposed Bragg grating: A novel proposal for all-optical multi-wavelength filtering and switching," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 243-266, 2007.
    doi:10.2528/PIER07072903

    35. Sanyal, S. K., Q. M. Alfred, and T. Chakravarty, "A novel beamswitching algorithm for programmable phased array antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research , Vol. 60, 187-196, 2006.
    doi:10.2528/PIER05122502

    36. Aberg, I., "High-frequency switching and Kerr effect — Nonlinear problems solved with nonstationary time domain techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 17, 185-235, 1997.
    doi:10.2528/PIER97021200

    37. Mitilineos, S. A., C. A. Papagianni, G. I. Verikaki, and C. Capsalis, "Design of switched beam planar arrays using the method of genetic algorithms ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 46, 105-126, 2004.
    doi:10.2528/PIER03080802

    38. Wei, W.-B., Q.-Z. Liu, Y.-Z. Yin, and H.-J. Zhou, "Reconfigurabl microstrip patch antenna with switchable polarization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 63-68, 2007.
    doi:10.2528/PIER07053002

    39. Afrang, S. and E. Abbaspour-Sani, "A low voltage MEMS structure for RF capacitive switches," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 157-167, 2006.
    doi:10.2528/PIER06093001

    40. Varlamos, P. K. and C. N. Capsalis, "Electronic beam steering using switched parasitic smart antenna arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 36, 101-119, 2002.
    doi:10.2528/PIER01100302