Transponders (also known as polarimetric active radar calibrators or PARCs) are commonly used for radiometric calibration of synthetic aperture radars (SARs). Currently three methods for the determination of a transponder's frequency-dependent radar cross section (RCS) are used in practice. These require either to measure disassembled transponder components, or a separate radiometric measurement standard (like a flat, metallic plate or a corner reflector), leading to additional uncertainty contributions for the calibration result. In this paper, a novel method is introduced which neither requires disassembly nor an additional radiometric reference. Instead, the measurement results can be directly traced back to a realization of the meter, lowering total measurement uncertainties. The method is similar in approach to the well known three-antenna method, but is based on the radar equation instead of Friis transmission formula. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by a measurement campaign for DLR's three new Kalibri C-band transponders, completed by an uncertainty analysis. The method is not universally applicable for all transponder calibrations because (a) three devices are necessary (instead of only one for the known methods), and (b) the transponders must provide certain additional features. Nevertheless, these features have become standard in modern SAR calibration transponder designs. The novel, potentially more accurate three transponder method is thus a viable alternative for transponder RCS calibration, ultimately contributing to synthetic aperture radars with a reduced radiometric measurement uncertainty.
An Eigenanalysis-based technique is presented for the study and design of large complicated closed cavities and particularly Reverberation Chambers, including conductor and dielectric material losses. Two different numerical approaches are exploited, while a Perturbation technique is employed to acquire an approximate reference solution. First, a straightforward approach is adopted where the finite walls conductivity is incorporated into the Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation through the Leontovich Impedance boundary conditions. The resulting eigenproblem is linearized through an eigenvalue transformation and solved using the Arnoldi algorithm. To address the excessive computational requirements of this approach and to achieve a fine mesh ensuring convergence, a novel approach is adopted. Within this, a linear eigenvalue problem is formulated and solved assuming all metallic structures as perfect electric conductors (PEC). In turn, the resulting eigenfunctions are post-processed within the Leontovich boundary condition for the calculation of the metals finite conductivity losses. Mode stirrer design guidelines are setup based on the eigenfunction characteristics. Both numerical eigenanalysis techniques are validated against an analytical solution for the empty cavity and a reverberation chamber simulated by a commercial FEM simulator. A series of classical mode stirrers are studied to verify the design guidelines, and an improved mode stirrer is developed.
We present the application to transmission line systems of a new theory of the optical theorem that describes the energy budget of electromagnetic scattering in lossless wave propagation media. The insight gained by exploring this, simplest of the electromagnetic wave propagation systems from the point of view of the optical theorem, is important for understanding power budget of electromagnetic scattering due to the presence of targets in a medium, and of changes of loads due to parasitics, faults, switching, and other reasons, in transmission lines, with applications to quality control in manufacturing, self-monitoring of microwave circuits, and the detection of load changes and faults in power transmission and distribution systems. The results also apply to more general electromagnetic propagation systems and are relevant for the development of novel electromagnetic (e.g., microwave, terahertz) and optical sensors.
This paper develops the kriging method to calculate the whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for any angle of incidence of a plane wave on any body model using a minimum number of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations. Practical application of this method is to study people's exposure. Thanks to kriging method, it will enable to answer to the challenge of studying the exposure in a realistic environment. This approach develops a new tool in order to improve the field of stochastic dosimetry. The kriging method is applied to a girl body model in order to determine the variogram model, then this model is validated on a boy body model. Thanks to only 40 numerical SAR values, kriging method enables to estimate any SAR value with a mean relative error under 3%.
In this paper a compact two-layer microstrip passive beam-forming matrix in the 2.9-3.1 GHz frequency band is designed, fabricated, and measured. This 13×6 matrix is a passive circuit that can transform the 13 patterns of an antenna array into six possible beams to decrease the complexity for multiplexing /demultiplexing operation in three dimensional Radar. The 90 degrees hybrid couplers with high isolation between two signals and phase shifters between the couplers are used to provide proper signals in outputs. The matrix structure consists of metal walls around transmission lines to eliminate the surface waves. Also, a coaxial to microstrip transition is used to extract accurate measurement results. A special box is designed to cover matrix which has many design considerations such as cutoff frequency, destructive effects on couplers and other parts of matrix, and all of these effects are analyzed and considered to achieve the optimum performance in this paper. The matrix is designed on a substrate Rogers RT5880 with εr=2.2, substrate height=0.787 mm, and loss tangent=0.0009. Also the thickness of the copper cladding layer is 17 um. The maximum amplitude and phase errors in outputs are 0.6 dB and 7˚, respectively and VSWRs are less than 1.35 in the matrix bandwidth with at least 20 dB isolation between all ports.
The cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter is a powerful tool for multitarget tracking (MTT). However, conventional CPHD filter discriminates targets from clutter only via the motion information, which is not reasonable in the situation of dense clutter. In the tracking, the amplitude of target returns is usually stronger than those coming from clutter, so the amplitude information can be used to enhance the discrimination between targets and clutter. Based on this idea, this paper proposes an amplitude-aided CPHD filter for the MTT in distant infrared (IR) surveillance. First, we model the amplitude of targets and clutter in IR scenarios respectively. For distant IR scenarios, the point spread function (PSF) is used to model the imaging of the point target. The center intensity of the PSF is unknown in practice, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is adopted to estimate the target center intensity via the intensities of the latest target detections. Then a likelihood function for MTT is established, and using this likelihood function, a new CPHD recursion is derived, which can distinguish different targets and clutter by the correspondence weight. In the implementation, we adopt the Gaussian mixture (GM) approach to implement the amplitude-aided CPHD filter to achieve efficient performance. In numerical experiments, the results show that the proposed method attains a significant improvement in performance over that only using location measurements.
This paper presents a new hybridization between MoM-GEC and some asymptotic methods. In fact, a new hybrid current test function based on Physical Optic (PO) and a modal method is developed. The approach consists in approximating the total current on an invariant metallic pattern on two parts. The inside of metal is governed by PO method; however, the edges are modeled by infinite cylinders and described by Hankel functions (modal method). The considered single test function is required then by MoM method to replace a lot of sinusoidal or triangular test functions, in order to get a rapid convergence and less computational time. For validation purposes, the new developed hybrid approach is applied to compute scattering in different structures. The obtained input impedances, currents and fields distributions are in agreement with those obtained by MoM method. Considerable gain in computational time and memory resources is achieved.
Encoding a large number of bits within a narrow band is an important factor in the development of chipless RFID tags. A novel 8 bit chipless RFID tag with a limited bandwidth of 650 MHz is proposed here. The proposed tag comprises a multi-resonating circuit with eight E-shaped microstrip resonators in the frequency band of 3.12 to 3.77 GHz and two cross-polarized transmitting and receiving monopole antennas. The unique feature of the proposed tag is that a different set of frequencies can be derived by changing a single parameter of the structure. The prototype of the tag is fabricated on a substrate C-MET LK4.3 of dielectric constant 4.3 and loss tangent 0.0018. Different tag combinations are designed and tested using bistatic measurement setup. Measurement results on realized prototypes are provided to ensure the reliability of the proposed design.
This work presents experimental investigations of three-dimensional (3-D) far-field holographic microwave imaging (HMI) method for diagnosing inclusions within dielectric objects, and in particular, it relates to electromagnetic imaging to reconstruct dielectric properties of inhomogeneous, lossy bodies with arbitrary shape. The apparatus is designed for operation at a single frequency of 12.6 GHz. 16 antennas are located on a 2-D array plane which is placed under the object in the far-field region, with air in the space between the antenna array and the object. Experimental results indicate that the 3-D HMI system has the ability to produce a 3-D image of multimedia dielectric object and detect small inclusions embedded within an object. The invention has potential application to tissue imaging.
This paper deals with the computation of vibrations and noise of electromagnetic origin for `U'-shaped stator core flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines. The investigation concerns a family of FSPM stator/rotor configurations with 12 slots and 10, 11, 13, and 14 rotor poles. More precisely, the study focuses on the influence of different number of rotor poles on the sound power level of U-core FSPM machines. Electromagnetic forces acting on the stator frame inner surface are calculated with the Maxwell stress tensor thanks to 2-D finite element (FE) simulations. The local magnetic force density serves then as a boundary condition to the 3-D finite element vibrational simulations of the whole stator frame with housing. Finally, obtained displacements help the authors to conduct the acoustic computations using a dedicated 3-D FE analysis model. The obtained vibro-acoustic spectra help electric machines designers to make appropriate choice of stator/rotor pole combination with respect to specifications at early stages of the design process.
This paper describes the working principle of a three-dimensional (3-D) holographic microwave imaging (HMI) method for imaging small inclusion embedded in a dielectric object. Using published dielectric properties of various materials, a 3-D mathematical model is developed under the MATLAB environment to validate the HMI on various dielectric objects. Results indicate that the 3-D HMI has an ability to produce a 3-D image and detect small inclusions embedded within a dielectric object. Several potential applications of the 3-D HMI method includes biological tissues imaging, security screening and packaged food evaluation.
The method of auxiliary sources MAS, presents a promising alternative to methods based on discretization, currently used for solving scattering problems. The optimal choice of the auxiliary surface and the proper allocation of radiation centers play a crucial role in ensuring accuracy and stability of the MAS. This approach is considered an open issue and can be investigated numerically. In this paper, we propose a systematic and fully automated technique leading to determine the optimal parameters of the MAS for arbitrary shaped obstacles (partially or fully penetrable) for scattering problems.
According to a recent European Union report, lighting represents a significant share of electricity costs and the goal of reducing lighting power consumption by 20% demands the coupling of light-emitting diode (LED) lights with smart sensors and communication networks. This paper proposes the integration of these three elements into a smart streetlight, which is based on LEDs and a 24 GHz phased-array (Ph-A) front-end (FE) designed in low-cost 90nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The selected FE's architecture allows the implementation of transceivers as well as Doppler radar sensors. Furthermore the Ph-A technology is applied to the Doppler radar sensor in order to realize multi-lane road scanning and pedestrian detection. The radar sensor is used to make the streetlight eco-friendly by turning on the lamp only when necessary and to measure traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, type and direction. Intercommunication between the streetlights is based on a time-sharing mechanism and uses the same FE reconfigured as transceiver. Thanks to this functionality, the recorded traffic information is relayed through adjacent streetlights to a control center, and control commands and warnings can be spread through the network. The system requirements are derived assuming a simplified model of the operating scenario with a typical inter-light distance of 50 m and line-of-sight between lights. The radar range is around 60 m, which allows for continuous coverage from one streetlight to the adjacent one. Meanwhile, a communication range of 140 m is derived as a fundamental requirement for reliable communication between streetlight sensors because it allows bypassing of one node in case of failure. For the developed building blocks --- a low-noise amplifier, a variable-gain amplifier, a voltage-controlled oscillator and a vector modulation phase shifter --- the design methodology is presented together with measurement results. The system feasibility is proved by means of a system analysis based on the measured data from the implemented blocks and the state of the art performances for the missing parts. The requirements are fulfilled with a total power consumption of around 375 mW in Doppler radar sensor mode and around 190 mW in transceiver mode. To the authors' knowledge, this kind of integration is new and overcomes some limitations of the currently used solutions based on infrared sensors and low-throughput communications.
The paper is devoted to the theory of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of symmetry in waveguides with a non-circular cross-section. The case of waveguides filled with isotropic cold plasma is studied theoretically. Plasma particles motion is described in fluid approximation; expressions for the waves' fields are derived from Maxwell equations. Cross-section of the studied waveguide is modeled by Fourier series with coefficients, which values are less than unity. This allows one to apply method of successive approximations for analytical research of this problem. Boundary conditions, which are formulated in non-linear form over the small parameters of the problem have been applied for derivation the dispersion equations, which determine frequency spectrum of these surface waves for waveguides of different constructions. Studied eigen electromagnetic waves propagate in the form of wave packets, which are approximately described by the main azimuthal harmonic and two nearest satellite spatial harmonics. Represented results have been obtained both analytically and numerically. Possible spheres of the studied eigen waves are discussed.
Electromagnetic imaging is based upon the fundamentals of electromagnetic (EM) fields and their relationship with the material properties under evaluation. A new system based on a Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) sensor array was built to capture the scattered EM signal returned by metallic objects. This paper evaluates the new system's capabilities through the classification of metallic objects based on features extracted from their response to EM fields. A novel amplitude variation feature as well as the combinations of typical features is proposed to obtain high classification rates. The selected features of metallic objects are then applied to well-known supervisedclassifiers (ANN and SVM) to detect and classify `threat' items. A collection of handguns with other commonly used metallic objects are tested. Promising results show that a high classification rate is achieved using the proposed new combination features and classification framework. This novel procedure has the potential to produce significant improvements in automatic weapon detection and classification.
The finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method is a very simple and powerful approach for rigorous analysis of electromagnetic structures. It may be the simplest of all methods to implement and is excellent for field visualization and for developing new ways to model devices. This paper describes a simple method for incorporating anisotropic materials with arbitrary tensors for both permittivity and permeability into the FDFD method. The algorithm is benchmarked by comparing transmission and reflection results for an anisotropic guided-mode resonant filter simulated in HFSS and FDFD. The anisotropic FDFD method is then applied to a lens and cloak designed by transformation optics.
Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is an effective method to identify unknown targets regardless of weather and illumination conditions. Research results published regarding this topic have focused mainly on imaging and automatic target recognition (ATR) of single targets. However, targets generally fly in formation, so the applicability of ISAR images to ATR of multiple targets must be studied. This paper proposes an ATR procedure for targets flying in formation. ATR accuracy derived using five targets composed of point scatterers and the measured radar signal of a Boeing747 aircraft was as high as that of the solo flight in terms of SNR and the size of the training database; this result shows that ISAR is an adequate tool for ATR even if an image is contaminated by radar reflections from neighboring targets.
A planar compact multiband monopole antenna is presented for ultra-slim mobile handsets applications. The proposed antenna operates over 0.885 GHz-0.962 GHz and 1.69 GHz-3.8 GHz frequency bands with -6 dB impedance bandwidth that covers GSM900, GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, IMT2100, WLAN, WiMAX along with most of the higher LTE bands of modern mobile phone applications. The radiation characteristics of the antenna is analyzed in term of radiation patterns, peak realized gain, total radiation efficiency, and surface current distribution. The radiation patterns of the proposed antenna is dipole like which is suitable for mobile applications with 73-93% total radiation efficiency. The proposed antenna is investigated in free space as well as in actual mobile environment consisting of mobile plastic housing along with large metallic display screen and battery. No significant effect on the operating bands of the mobile antenna due to the actual mobile environment on the impedance bandwidth is observed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) computation is carried out on human head phantom. The computed values of SAR lie well below the specified limit over 1 g and 10 g of tissues. The parametric analysis is also carried out to understand the effect of the shape parameters.
Two absorbing boundary conditions (ABC's) are derived for the cylindrical MRTD grids. The first one is the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) based on stretched coordinates with complex frequency shifted constitutive parameters, and the other is the straightforward extension of CPML named quasi-CPML (QCPML) as it is no longer perfectly matched for cylindrical interfaces. Unlike the Berenger's PML, the implementations of the two ABC's are completely independent of the host material. Numerical results show that both ABC's can provide a quite satisfactory absorbing boundary condition, and can save more CPU time and memory than the Berenger's PML, while the QCPML has an advantage of CPML at the proposed absorbing performance, CPU time and memory saving. Moreover, it is shown that the QCPML is more effective than the PML and CPML at absorbing evanescent waves.
An electromagnetic analysis is presented for experiments with strong permanent disc magnets. The analysis is based on the well known experiment that demonstrates the effect of circulating eddy currents by dropping a strong magnet through a vertically placed metal cylinder and observing how the magnet is slowly falling through the cylinder with a constant velocity. This experiment is quite spectacular with a super strong neodymium magnet and a thick metal cylinder made of copper or aluminum. A rigorous theory for this experiment is provided based on the quasi-static approximation of the Maxwell equations, an infinitely long cylinder (no edge effects) and a homogeneous magnetization of the disc magnet. The results are useful for teachers and students in electromagnetics who wish to obtain a deeper insight into the analysis and experiments regarding this phenomenon, or with industrial applications such as the grading and calibration of strong permanent magnets or with measurements of the conductivity of various metals, etc. Several experiments and numerical computations are included to validate and to illustrate the theory.