Vol. 94

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Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR) Digital Twin Simulation of Photovoltaic Systems for Fault Detection and Location

By Samuel R. Kingston, Cody La Flamme, Mashad Uddin Saleh, Hunter Ellis, Evan Benoit, Ayobami Edun, Michael A. Scarpulla, Cynthia Furse, and Joel B. Harley
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 94, 105-126, 2021


Utilizing spread spectrum time domain reflectometry (SSTDR) to detect, locate, and characterize faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems is examined in this paper. We present a method to obtain the model parameters that are needed to produce digital twin SSTDR responses for PV systems. The digital twin SSTDR responses could be used to predict faults within the PV systems. The model parameters are the reflection and transmission coefficients at each impedance discontinuity in the PV system along with the propagation coefficients across each PV cable segment. We obtain model parameter by applying inverse modeling techniques to experimental SSTDR data associated with PV systems. Our model parameters can be used in any digital twin simulation method for modeling reflectometry in frequency-dependent and complex loads. For validation, we used the model parameters in a graph network simulation engine and adapted it to be used for SSTDR digital twin simulations in PV systems. We produced simulations for 0 to 10 PV modules connected in series. We also simulated SSTDR responses for open circuit disconnections in a PV setup containing 10 PV modules in series. Results show that all but one simulated disconnect locations match experimental disconnection locations of the same setup with an error of less than 5%.


Samuel R. Kingston, Cody La Flamme, Mashad Uddin Saleh, Hunter Ellis, Evan Benoit, Ayobami Edun, Michael A. Scarpulla, Cynthia Furse, and Joel B. Harley, "Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR) Digital Twin Simulation of Photovoltaic Systems for Fault Detection and Location," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 94, 105-126, 2021.


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